Articles

The Jeffersonian Vision, 1801-1815, William Nestor

The Jeffersonian Vision, 1801-1815, William Nestor



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

The Jeffersonian Vision, 1801-1815, William Nestor

The Jeffersonian Vision, 1801-1815, William Nestor

This is the third in a series of books by the same author looking at the development of American power in the Revolutionary and post-Revolutionary period. This book focuses on the presidencies of Thomas Jefferson and his political ally successor James Madison, going as far as the end of the War of 1812 in 1815. Madison is often considered one of the worst presidents, Jefferson one of the better ones, but actually their policies were rather similar.

The author's main argument is that Jefferson's policies were actually disastrous for the United States. His belief that the 'government that governs least, governs best', combined with his dislike of merchants and manufacturers and preference for self sufficient farmers, greatly retarded the development of the American economy. This lead to a belief in rights without responsibilities and representation without taxation which affected the behaviour of the 'war hawks' during the War of 1812 - the most vocal supporters of the war were also very unlikely to actually fight in it, and were also opposed to raising taxes to pay for the war. His economic policies also led to the rather bizarre policy of trade embargos aimed at American merchants, in the belief that the British Empire would crumble if denied the raw materials produced in the United States. Instead British trade simply moved elsewhere while American businesses suffered massive losses.

It also becomes clear that Jefferson's main successes, in particular the Louisiana Purchase, which massively expanded the United States, came about when he was willing to bend or ignore his principles - in other areas he tended to believe that anything not expressly allowed by the Constitution wasn't legal, but there was no mention of expanding the United States by purchase.

We also look at some of the reasons for Madison's poor performance, with cronyism the main culprit - he seems to have preferred to have an inept member of his own Republican Party in a post rather than an able Federalist, a policy that even applied in the military, one body that should have been politically neutral.

From our point of view the War of 1812 is the main event and it is well covered here. Once again cronyism comes to the fore, with some truly dreadful political generals responsible for heavy American defeats. Republican faith in the militia was also proved to be false, with most militiamen refusing to cross the Canadian border (the same was true of Jefferson's naval theories - he preferred coastal gunboats to proper warships, but when war came they proved to be almost entirely useless).

Part 1: Jefferson, 1801-1805
1 - The Revolution of 1801
2 - The Battle for the Courts
3 - Thomas Jefferson and American Power
4 - The Louisiana Dilemma
5 - Squaring Off with Spain
6 - The Louisiana Purchase
7 - Where to Draw the Line?
8 - Rising Tensions with Britain
9 - To the Shores of Tripoli
10 - To the Ends of the Earth

Part 2: Jefferson, 1805-1809
11 - Faltering Steps
12 - The Fate of West Florida
13 - The Burr Conspiracy
14 - The ChesapeakeAtrocity
15 - Within the Turtle Shell
16 - Abolishing the Slave Trade
17 - Across the Wide Missouri
18 - Passing the Torch

Part 3: Madison, 1809-1813
19 - James Madison and American Power
20 - From Embargo to Non-Intercourse
21 - Florida Coups and Intrigues
22 - The Struggle for the Northwest Frontier
23 - Down the Slippery Slope
24 - Into the Abyss
25 - Second Thoughts
26 - Mustering the Nation
27 - The Great Lakes Front
28 - The War at Sea
29 - Staying the Course
30 - Paying the Piper
31 - Truth and Consequences

Part 4: Madison, 1813-1815
32 - The Politics of War
33 - The Lake Ontario Deadlock
34 - "We Have met the Enemy and They Are Ours!"
35 - The Red Stick War
36 - "Don't Give Up the Ship!"
37 - Groping for a Way Out
38 - Politics as Usual
39 - First the Good News
40 - The Rock of Sisyphus
41 - Moral and Diplomatic Dilemmas
42 - Indian Summer Campaigns
43 - Is Washington Burning?
44 - Conformists and Dissidents
45 - The Treaty of Ghent
46 - The Battle of New Orleans
47 - A Distant Mirror?

Author: William Nestor
Edition: Hardcover
Pages: 280
Publisher: Casemate
Year: 2013



The Age of Jackson and the Art of American Power, 1815-1848

As William Nester asserts in The Age of Jackson, it takes quite a leader to personify an age. A political titan for thirty-three years (1815-1848), Andrew Jackson possessed character, beliefs, and acts that dominated American politics. Although Jackson returned to his Tennessee plantation in March 1837 after serving eight years as president, he continued to overshadow American politics. Two of his proteges, Martin "the Magician" van Buren and James "Young Hickory" Polk, followed him to the White House and pursued his agenda.

Jackson provoked firestorms of political passions throughout his era. Far more people loved than hated him, but the fervor was just as pitched either way. Although the passions have subsided, the debate lingers. Historians are split over Jackson's legacy. Some extol him as among America's greatest presidents, citing his championing of the common man, holding the country together during the nullification crisis, and eliminating the national debt. Others excoriate him as a mean-spirited despot who shredded the Constitution and damaged the nation's development by destroying the Second Bank of the United States, defying the Supreme Court, and grossly worsening political corruption through his spoils system. Still others condemn his forcibly expelling more than forty thousand Native Americans from their homes and along the Trail of Tears, which led far west of the Mississippi River, with thousands perishing along the way.

In his clear-eyed assessment of one of the most divisive leaders in American history, Nester provides new insight into the age-old debate about the very nature of power itself.


Contents

Jefferson has been called "the most democratic of the Founding fathers". [11] The Jeffersonians advocated a narrow interpretation of the Constitution's Article I provisions granting powers to the federal government. They strenuously opposed the Federalist Party, led by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. President George Washington generally supported Hamilton's program for a financially strong national government. The election of Jefferson in 1800, which he called "the revolution of 1800", brought in the Presidency of Thomas Jefferson and the permanent eclipse of the Federalists, apart from the Supreme Court. [12]

"Jeffersonian democracy" is an umbrella term and some factions favored some positions more than others. While principled, with vehemently held core beliefs, the Jeffersonians had factions that disputed the true meaning of their creed. For example, during the War of 1812 it became apparent that independent state militia units were inadequate for conducting a serious war against a major country. The new Secretary of War John C. Calhoun, a Jeffersonian, proposed to build up the Army. With the support of most Republicans in Congress, he got his way. [13] However, the "Old Republican" faction, claiming to be true to the Jeffersonian Principles of '98, fought him and reduced the size of the Army after Spain sold Florida to the U.S. [14]

Historians characterize Jeffersonian democracy as including the following core ideals:

  • The core political value of America is republicanismcitizens have a civic duty to aid the state and resist corruption, especially monarchism and aristocracy. [15]
  • Jeffersonian values are best expressed through an organized political party. The Jeffersonian party was officially the "Republican Party" (political scientists later called it the Democratic-Republican Party to differentiate it from the later Republican Party of Lincoln). [16]
  • It was the duty of citizens to vote and the Jeffersonians invented many modern campaign techniques designed to get out the vote. Turnout indeed soared across the country. [17] The work of John J. Beckley, Jefferson's agent in Pennsylvania, set new standards in the 1790s. In the 1796 presidential election, he blanketed the state with agents who passed out 30,000 hand-written tickets, naming all 15 electors (printed tickets were not allowed). Historians consider Beckley to be one of the first American professional campaign managers and his techniques were quickly adopted in other states. [18]
  • The Federalist Party, especially its leader Alexander Hamilton, was the arch-foe because of its acceptance of aristocracy and British methods.
  • The national government is a dangerous necessity to be instituted for the common benefit, protection and security of the people, nation or communityit should be watched closely and circumscribed in its powers. Most anti-Federalists from 1787–1788 joined the Jeffersonians. [19] is the best method to keep government free of religious disputes and religion free from corruption by government. [20]
  • The federal government must not violate the rights of individuals. The Bill of Rights is a central theme. [21]
  • The federal government must not violate the rights of the states. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798 (written secretly by Jefferson and James Madison) proclaim these principles. [22] and the press are the best methods to prevent tyranny over the people by their own government. The Federalists' violation of this freedom through the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 became a major issue. [23]
  • The yeoman farmer best exemplifies civic virtue and independence from corrupting city influencesgovernment policy should be for his benefit. Financiers, bankers and industrialists make cities the "cesspools of corruption" and should be avoided. [24]
  • The United States Constitution was written in order to ensure the freedom of the people. However, as Jefferson wrote to James Madison in 1789, "no society can make a perpetual constitution or even a perpetual law. The earth belongs always to the living generation". [25]
  • All men have the right to be informed and thus to have a say in the government. The protection and expansion of human liberty was one of the chief goals of the Jeffersonians. They also reformed their respective state systems of education. They believed that their citizens had a right to an education no matter their circumstance or status in life. [26]
  • The judiciary should be subservient to the elected branches and the Supreme Court should not have the power to strike down laws passed by Congress. The Jeffersonians lost this battle to Chief Justice John Marshall, a Federalist, who dominated the Court from 1801 to his death in 1835. [27]

Foreign policy Edit

The Jeffersonians also had a distinct foreign policy: [28] [29]

  • Americans had a duty to spread what Jefferson called the "Empire of Liberty" to the world, but should avoid "entangling alliances". [30]
  • Britain was the greatest threat, especially its monarchy, aristocracy, corruption and business methodsthe Jay Treaty of 1794 was much too favorable to Britain and thus threatened American values. [31]
  • Regarding the French Revolution, its devotion to principles of Republicanism, liberty, equality, and fraternity made France the ideal European nation. According to Michael Hardt, "Jefferson's support of the French Revolution often serves in his mind as a defense of republicanism against the monarchism of the Anglophiles". [32] On the other hand, Napoleon was the antithesis of republicanism and could not be supported. [33][34]
  • Navigation rights on the Mississippi River were critical to American national interests. Control by Spain was tolerablecontrol by France was unacceptable. The Louisiana Purchase was an unexpected opportunity to guarantee those rights which the Jeffersonians immediately seized upon.
  • A standing army is dangerous to liberty and should be avoidedmuch better was to use economic coercion such as the embargo. [35] See Embargo Act of 1807.
  • Most Jeffersonians argued an expensive high seas Navy was unnecessary, since cheap locally-based gunboats, floating batteries, mobile shore batteries, and coastal fortifications could defend the ports without the temptation to engage in distant wars. Jefferson himself, however, wanted a few frigates to protect American shipping against Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean. [36][37]
  • The locally controlled non-professional militia was adequate to defend the nation from invasion. After the militia proved inadequate in the War of 1812 President Madison expanded the national Army for the duration. [38]

Westward expansion Edit

Territorial expansion of the United States was a major goal of the Jeffersonians because it would produce new farm lands for yeomen farmers. The Jeffersonians wanted to integrate the Indians into American society, or remove further west those tribes that refused to integrate. However Sheehan (1974) argues that the Jeffersonians, with the best of goodwill toward the Indians, destroyed their distinctive cultures with its misguided benevolence. [39]

The Jeffersonians took enormous pride in the bargain they reached with France in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. It opened up vast new fertile farmlands from Louisiana to Montana. Jefferson saw the West as an economic safety valve which would allow people in the crowded East to own farms. [40] However, established New England political interests feared the growth of the West and a majority in the Federalist Party opposed the purchase. [41] Jeffersonians thought the new territory would help maintain their vision of the ideal republican society, based on agricultural commerce, governed lightly and promoting self-reliance and virtue. [42]

The Jeffersonians' dream did not come to pass as the Louisiana Purchase was a turning point in the history of American imperialism. The farmers with whom Jefferson identified conquered the West, often through violence against Native Americans. Jefferson himself sympathized with Native Americans, but that did not stop him from enacting policies that would continue the trend towards the dispossession of their lands. [43]

Economics Edit

Jeffersonian agrarians held that the economy of the United States should rely more on agriculture for strategic commodities than on industry. Jefferson specifically believed: "Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God, if He ever had a chosen people, whose breast He has made His peculiar deposit for substantial and genuine virtue". [44] However, Jeffersonian ideals are not opposed to all manufacturing, rather he believed that all people have the right to work to provide for their own subsistence and that an economic system which undermines that right is unacceptable. [45]

Jefferson's belief was that unlimited expansion of commerce and industry would lead to the growth of a class of wage laborers who relied on others for income and sustenance. The workers would no longer be independent voters. Such a situation, Jefferson feared, would leave the American people vulnerable to political subjugation and economic manipulation. The solution Jefferson came up with was, as scholar Clay Jenkinson noted, "a graduated income tax that would serve as a disincentive to vast accumulations of wealth and would make funds available for some sort of benign redistribution downward" as well as tariffs on imported articles, which were mainly purchased by the wealthy. [46] In 1811, Jefferson wrote a friend:

These revenues will be levied entirely on the rich . . The Rich alone use imported article, and on these alone the whole taxes of the General Government are levied. The poor man . pays not a farthing of tax to the General Government, but on his salt. [47]

However, Jefferson was of the belief that a tax on income as well as consumption would constitute excessive taxation, writing in an 1816 letter:

. if the system be established on the basis of Income, and his just proportion on that scale has been already drawn from every one, to step into the field of Consumption and tax special articles . is doubly taxing the same article. For that portion of Income with which these articles are purchased, having already paid its tax as Income, to pay another tax on the thing it purchased, is paying twice for the same thing it is an aggrievance on the citizens who use these articles in exoneration of those who do not, contrary to the most sacred of the duties of a government, to do equal and impartial justice to all its citizens. [48]

Similarly, Jefferson had protectionist views on international trade. He believed that not only would economic dependence on Europe diminish the virtue of the republic, but that the United States had an abundance of natural resources that Americans should be able to cultivate and use to tend to their own needs. Furthermore, exporting goods by merchant ships created risks of capture by foreign pirates and armies, which would require an expensive navy for protection. [49] Lastly, he and other Jeffersonians believed in the power of embargoes as a means to inflict punishment on hostile foreign nations. Jefferson preferred these methods of coercion to war. [50]

Limited government Edit

While the Federalists advocated for a strong central government, Jeffersonians argued for strong state and local governments and a weak federal government. [51] Self-sufficiency, self-government and individual responsibility were in the Jeffersonian worldview among the most important ideals that formed the basis of the American Revolution. In Jefferson's opinion, nothing that could feasibly be accomplished by individuals at the local level ought to be accomplished by the federal government. The federal government would concentrate its efforts solely on national and international projects. [52] Jefferson's advocacy of limited government led to sharp disagreements with Federalist figures such as Alexander Hamilton. Jefferson felt that Hamilton favored plutocracy and the creation of a powerful aristocracy in the United States which would accumulate increasingly greater power until the political and social order of the United States became indistinguishable from those of the Old World. [51]

After initial skepticism, Jefferson supported the ratification of the United States Constitution and especially supported its stress on checks and balances. The ratification of the United States Bill of Rights, especially the First Amendment, gave Jefferson even greater confidence in the document. [51] Jeffersonians favored a strict construction interpretation of federal government powers described in Article I of the Constitution. For example, Jefferson once wrote a letter to Charles Willson Peale explaining that although a Smithsonian-style national museum would be a wonderful resource, he could not support the use of federal funds to construct and maintain such a project. [52] The "strict constructionism" of today is a remote descendant of Jefferson's views.

The spirit of Jeffersonian democracy dominated American politics from 1800 to 1824, the First Party System, under Jefferson and succeeding presidents James Madison and James Monroe. The Jeffersonians proved much more successful than the Federalists in building state and local party organizations that united various factions. [53] Voters in every state formed blocs loyal to the Jeffersonian coalition. [54]

Prominent spokesmen for Jeffersonian principles included Madison, Albert Gallatin, John Randolph of Roanoke, Nathaniel Macon, John Taylor of Caroline [55] and James Monroe, as well as John C. Calhoun, John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay (with the last three taking new paths after 1828).

Randolph was the Jeffersonian leader in Congress from 1801 to 1815, but he later broke with Jefferson and formed his own "Tertium Quids" faction because he thought the president no longer adhered to the true Jeffersonian principles of 1798. [56] The Quids wanted to actively punish and discharge Federalists in the government and in the courts. Jefferson himself sided with the moderate faction exemplified by figures such as Madison, who were much more conciliatory towards Federalism. [49]

After the Madison administration experienced serious trouble financing the War of 1812 and discovered the Army and militia were unable to make war effectively, a new generation of Republican nationalists emerged. They were supported by President James Monroe, an original Jeffersonian and included John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. In 1824, Adams defeated Andrew Jackson, who had support from the Quids and in a few years two successor parties had emerged, the Democratic Party, which formulated Jacksonian democracy and which still exists and Henry Clay's Whig Party. Their competition marked the Second Party System. [57]

After 1830, the principles were still talked about but did not form the basis of a political party, thus editor Horace Greeley in 1838 started a magazine, The Jeffersonian, that he said "would exhibit a practical regard for that cardinal principle of Jeffersonian Democracy, and the People are the sole and safe depository of all power, principles and opinions which are to direct the Government". [58]

Jeffersonian democracy was not a one-man operation. It was a large political party with many local and state leaders and various factions, and they did not always agree with Jefferson or with each other. [59]

Jefferson was accused of inconsistencies by his opponents. [60] The "Old Republicans" said that he abandoned the Principles of 1798. He believed the national security concerns were so urgent that it was necessary to purchase Louisiana without waiting for a Constitutional amendment. He enlarged federal power through the intrusively-enforced Embargo Act of 1807. He idealized the "yeoman farmer" despite being himself a gentleman plantation owner. The disparities between Jefferson's philosophy and practice have been noted by numerous historians. Staaloff proposed that it was due to his being a proto-Romantic [61] John Quincy Adams claimed that it was a manifestation of pure hypocrisy, or "pliability of principle" [62] and Bailyn asserts it simply represented a contradiction with Jefferson, that he was "simultaneously a radical utopian idealist and a hardheaded, adroit, at times cunning politician". [63] However, Jenkinson argued that Jefferson's personal failings ought not to influence present day thinkers to disregard Jeffersonian ideals. [64]

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, a European nobleman who opposed democracy, argues that "Jeffersonian democracy" is a misnomer because Jefferson was not a democrat, but in fact believed in rule by an elite: "Jefferson actually was an Agrarian Romantic who dreamt of a republic governed by an elite of character and intellect". [65]

Historian Sean Wilentz argues that as a practical politician elected to serve the people Jefferson had to negotiate solutions, not insist on his own version of abstract positions. The result, Wilentz argues, was "flexible responses to unforeseen events . in pursuit of ideals ranging from the enlargement of opportunities for the mass of ordinary, industrious Americans to the principled avoidance of war". [66]

Historians have long portrayed the contest between Jefferson and Hamilton as iconic for the politics, political philosophy, economic policies and future direction of the United States. In 2010, Wilentz identified a scholarly trend in Hamilton's favor:

"In recent years, Hamilton and his reputation have decidedly gained the initiative among scholars who portray him as the visionary architect of the modern liberal capitalist economy and of a dynamic federal government headed by an energetic executive. Jefferson and his allies, by contrast, have come across as naïve, dreamy idealists. At best according to many historians, the Jeffersonians were reactionary utopians who resisted the onrush of capitalist modernity in hopes of turning America into a yeoman farmers' arcadia. At worst, they were proslavery racists who wish to rid the West of Indians, expand the empire of slavery, and keep political power in local hands – all the better to expand the institution of slavery and protect slaveholders' rights to own human property. [67]

Joseph Ellis wrote that developments in urbanization and industrialization that occurred during the turn of the 20th century has largely rendered Jefferson's agrarian dream irrelevant. [68]

Jefferson summarized his essential principles of government in his first inaugural address March 4, 1801, when he expounded on "the essential principles of our Government, and consequently those which ought to shape its Administration", stating:

Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none the support of the State governments in all their rights, as the most competent administrations for our domestic concerns and the surest bulwarks against anti-republican tendencies the preservation of the General Government in its whole constitutional vigor, as the sheet anchor of our peace at home and safety abroad a jealous care of the right of election by the people. absolute acquiescence in the decisions of the majority. a well-disciplined militia, our best reliance in peace and for the first moments of war till regulars may relieve them the supremacy of the civil over the military authority economy in the public expense, that labor may be lightly burthened the honest payment of our debts and sacred preservation of the public faith encouragement of agriculture, and of commerce as its handmaid the diffusion of information and arraignment of all abuses at the bar of the public reason freedom of religion freedom of the press, and freedom of person under the protection of the habeas corpus, and trial by juries impartially selected. [69]


The Jeffersonian Vision, 1801-1815: The Art of American Power During the Early Republic by William Nester (Hardback, 2013)

/>

The lowest-priced brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item in its original packaging (where packaging is applicable). Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag. See details for additional description.

What does this price mean?

This is the price (excluding postage and handling fees) a seller has provided at which the same item, or one that is nearly identical to it, is being offered for sale or has been offered for sale in the recent past. The price may be the seller's own price elsewhere or another seller's price. The "off" amount and percentage simply signifies the calculated difference between the seller-provided price for the item elsewhere and the seller's price on eBay. If you have any questions related to the pricing and/or discount offered in a particular listing, please contact the seller for that listing.


Contents

Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the third President of the United States (1801–1809). He served in the Continental Congress, and as a wartime Governor of Virginia (1779–1781). From mid-1784 Jefferson served as a diplomat, stationed in Paris. In May 1785, he became the United States Minister to France.

Jefferson was the first United States Secretary of State (1790–1793) serving under President George Washington. Jefferson and James Madison, organized the Democratic-Republican Party, and subsequently resigned from Washington's cabinet. Elected Vice President in 1796. He wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which attempted to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts.

As president Jefferson promoted and authorized the Louisiana Purchase from France (1803), and sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) to explore the new west. His Vice President Aaron Burr was tried for treason. Hoping to avert war he attempted economic warfare against Britain with his embargo laws. In 1807 he drafted and signed into law a bill banning the importation of slaves into the United States.

Jefferson was a leader in the Enlightenment. He founded the University of Virginia after his presidency. He designed his own large mansion at Monticello and the University of Virginia building. Jefferson was a skilled writer and corresponded with many influential people in America and Europe throughout his adult life. His letters number in the many thousands and are used extensively as references for nearly all works on Jefferson.

Sources and publications for Jefferson have emerged for more than 200 years and at this late date there exist many hundreds of them. As such this bibliography, though extensive, is by no means complete at this time. This bibliography also contains books whose titles and subjects are not devoted to Thomas Jefferson per se, but whose content covers the subject of Jefferson well enough for their inclusion in this bibliography.

Format used for listing publications:
Lastname, Firstname (1900). Title of book in italics, Publisher, Location, 123 pages ISBN 123-4-5678-9012-3 URL link Book

Note: Some publications make no reference to Location and/or have no ISBN. Unlike bibliographies in subject articles, "Cite book" templates are not used here because too many templates on one page often causes server overload, which often causes load/save problems.


The Jeffersonian Vision, 1801-1815, William Nestor - History

1)The Rise of Cultural Nationalism

i)Republican vision included enlightened citizenry, wanted nationwide system of free public schools to create educated electorate required by republic

ii)By 1815 no state had a comprehensive public school system, schooling primary by private institutions open only to those who could pay. Most were aristocratic in outlook, trained students to become elite. Few schools for poor

iii)Idea of “republican mother” to train new generation could not be ignorant, late 18 th century women began to have limited education to make them better wives and mothers- no professional training

iv)Attempts to educate “noble savages” in white culture and reform tribes, African Americans very little schooling- literacy rate very small

v)Higher education not public, private contribution + tuition necessary, students mostly from prosperous, propertied families. Little professional education

i)Most doctors learned from established practitioners, struggled w/ introduction of science and combating superstition. Doctors often used dangerous and useless treatments.

ii)Medical profession used its new “scientific” method to justify expanding control to new care- childbirths by doctor and not midwives

c)Cultural Aspirations in the New Nation

i)After Eur independence ppl wanted cultural independence, literary and artistic achievements to rival those of Europe

ii)Nationalism could be found in early American schoolbooks, Noah Webster wanted patriot education- American Spelling Book and American Dictionary of the English Language established national standard of words and usage, simplified and Americanized system of spelling created

iii)High literacy rate and large reading public due to wide circulation of newspapers and political pamphlets. Most printers used cheaper English material, American writers struggled to create strong native literature

(1)Charles Brockden Brown used novels to voice American themes

(2)Washington Irving wrote American fold tales, fables- Rip Van Winkle

(3)Histories that glorified past- Mercy Otis Warren History of the Revolution 1805 emphasized heroism, Mason Weems Life of Washington 1806. History used to instill sense of nationalism

i)Revolution detached churches from govt + elevated liberty and reason, by 1790s few members of formal churches, some embraced “deism”

ii)Books and articles attacking religious “superstitions” popular, Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reason .

iii)Skepticism led to “universalism” + “unitarianism”, @ first within New England Congregational Church, later separate- rejected predestination, salvation for all, Jesus only great religious teacher not son of God

iv)Spread of rationalism led to less commitment to organized churches + denominations considered too formal and traditional, comeback starting 1801

e)The Second Great Awakening

i)Origin 1790s from efforts to fight spread of religious rationalism. Baptists, Presbyterian, Methodists (founded by John Wesley) successful at combating New Light dissenters (ppl who made religion more compatible w/ rationalism)

ii)By 1800 awakening that began at Yale had spread throughout country and to the west, “camp meetings” by evangelical ministers produced religious frenzy

iii)Second Great Awakening called individuals to readmit God + Christ into daily life, reject skeptical rationalism. New sects rejected predestination, combined piety w/ belief of God as active force whose grace achieved thru faith + works

iv)Accelerated growth of new sects as opposed to return to established churches, provided sense of order + social stability to ppl searching for identity

v)Women particularly drawn to revivalism b/c women more numerous in certain regions, movement of industrial work out of home led to personal and social strains that religion was used to compensate for

vi)Revival led to rise of black preachers who interpreted religious message of salvation available to all into right to freedom

vii) Native American dislocation and defeats after Revolution created sense of crisis and led to Indian religious fervor- missionaries active in south led to conversion, in North prophet Handsome Lake encouraged Christian missionaries and restoration of traditional Iroquois culture

2)Stirrings of Industrialism

i)America imported technological advances from England. Brit govt attempted to prevent spread of their tech, but immigrants introduced new machines to America. Samuel Slater built mill in RI 1790, first factory in America

ii)American inventor Oliver Evans created automated flower mill, Eli Whitney revolutionized weapons making and

iii)Invented cotton gin in 1793. Growth of textile industry in England created great demand for cotton, cotton gin allowed for easy separation of cotton seed from cotton allowed tremendous amount of cotton to be cleaned, new business led slavery became more important than ever.

iv)In North cotton supply led NE entrepreneurs to create American textile industry in 1820s/30s- as N became increasingly industrial S more firmly wedded to agriculture

v)His interchangeable parts for weapons invented during Quasi War w/ France adopted by other manufactures for other complicated products

i)Industrialization required transporting raw materials to factories and finished goods to create large domestic market for mass-production, US lacked system

ii)To enlarge American market US merchants looked to expand overseas trade, Congress 1789 passed tariff bills that favored American ships in American ports, stimulated growth of domestic shipping. War in Eur in 1790s led US merchants to take over most of trade btwn Eur and Western hemisphere

iii)Improvement in inter-state and interior transport led by improved river transport by new steamship

iv)Oliver Evans had invented efficient steam engine for boats and machinery, Robert Fulton + Robert Livingston perfected steamboat and brought it to national attention w/ their Clermont

v)Turnpike era began 1792 w/ corporate construction of turnpikes, but b/c needed to turn profit were generally short and only in densely populated areas

i)America remained largely rural and agrarian nation, only 3% lived in towns of more than 8,000 in 1800 census—yet there were signs of change

ii)Major US cities such as New York + Philadelphia large and complex enough to rival secondary cities of Europe

iii)Urban lifestyle produced affluent people who sought amenities, elegance, dress, and diversions- music, theater, dancing, horse racing

a)The Federal City and the “People’s President”

i)French architect Pierre L’Enfant designed city on grand scale, but Washington remained little more than provincial village w/ few public buildings

ii)Jefferson acted in spirit of democratic simplicity, made his image plain, disdain for pretension. Eliminated aura of majesty surrounding presidency

iii)Political genius, worked as leader of his party to give Republicans in Congress direction, used appointments as political weapon. Won 1804 reelection easily

i)Washington and Adams had increased expenditures, debt, taxation. Jefferson 1802 had Congress abolish all internal taxes leaving only land sales and customs duties, cut govt spending, halved debt

ii) Scaled down armed forces, cut navy due to fear of limiting civil liberty + civilian govt, promoting overseas commerce instead of agriculture

iii)At same time established US Military Academy @ West Point 1802, built up navy after 1801 threats by pasha of Tripoli in Mediterranean following Jefferson’s end to paying ransom demanded by Barbary pirates

c)Conflict With The Courts

i)Judiciary remained in hands of Federalist judges, congress repealed Judiciary Act of 1801 eliminating judgeships Adam’s filled before leaving office

ii)Case of Marbury v. Madison 1803 btwn Justice of Peace William Marbury and Sec of State James Madison

(1)Supreme Court ruled Congress exceeded its authority in creating a statute of the Judiciary Act of 1789 b/c Constitution had already defined judiciary

(2)Court asserted that the act of Congress was void. Enlarged courts power

iii)Chief Justice John Marshall presided over case, battled to give fed govt unity and strength, established judiciary as branch coequal w/ exec and legislature

iv)Jefferson assaulted last Federalist stronghold, urged Congress to impeach obstructive judges. Tried to impeach justice Samuel Chase in 1805 but Republican Senate could not get 2/3 vote necessary- acquittal set precedent impeachment not purely a political weapon, above partisan disagreement

4)Doubling the National Domain

i)After failing to seize India Napoleon wanted power in New World. Spain held areas west of Mississippi, 1800 Treaty of San Ildefonso granted French this Louisiana. Also held sugar-rich West Indian islands Guadeloupe, Martinique, Santo Domingo (where slave revolt led by Toussaint L’ouverture put down)

ii)Jefferson unaware of Napoleon’s imperial agenda, pursued pro-French foreign policy- apptd pro-French Robert Livingston minister, secured Franco-American settlement of 1800, disapproved of black Santo Domingo uprising

iii)Reconsidered position when heard of secret transfer of Louisiana and seizure of New Orleans, alarmed n 1802 when Spanish intendant at New Orleans forbade transfer of American cargo to ocean going vessels (which was guaranteed in Pikcney Treaty of 1795)- this closed lower Miss. to US shippers

iv)Westerners demanded govt reopen river, Jefferson ordered Livingston negotiate purchase of New Orleans, in meantime expanded military and river fleet to give impression of New Orleans attack

v)Nap offered sale of whole Louisiana Territory. Plans for American empire awry b/c army decimated by yellow fever, reinforcements frozen

i)Livingston and James Monroe in Paris decided to proceed with sale of whole territory even though not authorized to do so by govt, treaty signed April 1803

ii)US paid $15 million to France, had to incorporate N.O. residents into Union

iii)Jefferson unsure US had authority to accept offer b/c power not specifically granted in Constitution, ultimately agreed constituted as treaty power. December 1803 territory handed over from Spain to France then US

iv)Govt organized Louisiana territory like Northwest territory w/ various territories to eventually to become states- Louisiana first, admitted 1812

c)Lewis and Clark Explore the West

i)Jefferson planned expedition across continent to Pacific Ocean in 1803 to gather geographical fats and investigate trade w/ Indians

ii)Lewis and Clark set out 1804 from Mississippi R. in St Louis w/ Indian Sacajawea as guide, reached pacific fall 1805

iii)Jefferson dispatched other explorers to other parts of Louisiana Territory, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike led two expeditions btwn Mississppi and Rocky Mts

i)Reelection of 1804 suggested nation approved of Jefferson’s acquisitions, but some NE Federalists known as Essex Junto felt expansion weakened power of Federalists + region . Felt only answer secession and “Northern Confederacy”

ii)Plan required support of NY, NJ, New England, but leading NY Federalist Alexander Hamilton refused support

iii)Turned to Vice President Aaron Burr (who had no prospect in own party after 1800 election deadlock) to be Federalist candidate for NY governor in 1804

iv)Hamilton accused Burr of treason and negative remarks about character, when Burr lost election blamed defeat on Hamilton’s malevolence

v)Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel 1804, Hamilton mortally wounded

vi)Burr, now political outcast, fled NY for West and along with General James Wilkinson, governor of Louisiana Territory, planned capture of Mexico from Spanish and possibly make his own empire. 1806 tried for treason, acquitted

vii)“Conspiracy” showed perils of central govt that remained deliberately weak w/ vast tracts of nominally controlled land, state of US as stable and united nation

i)US shipping expanded to control trade btwn Eur and W. Indies

ii)Napoleon’s Continental system forbade ships that had docked at any point in British ports from landing on continent- Berlin (1806) + Milan (1807) Decrees

iii) Britain’s “orders in council” required goods to continent be in ships that had at least stopped in British ports- response to Nap’s “Continental System”

iv)American ships caught btwn countries, but England greater threat b/c greater sea power and the worse offender

i)Brit Navy had terrible conditions, forced service called “impressments” used, many deserted when possible and joined Americans- to stop loss Brit claimed right to stop and search American merchant ships + reimpress deserters

ii)1807 Chesapeake-Leopard incident: Brit fired on US ship that refused search, US Minister James Monroe protested, GB refused to renounce impressments

i)To prevent future incidents that might bring war Jefferson proposed The Embargo 1807- prohibited US ship from leaving for any foreign port

ii)Created national depression, ship-owners + merchants of NE (mainly Federalists) hardest hit-before

iii)James Madison, Jefferson’s Sec of State, won election of 1808 but fierce opposition- led Jefferson to end Embargo, replaced with Non-Intercourse Act- reopened trade w/ all nations except GB + France

iv)1810 new Macon’s Bill No. 2 opened trade w/ GB + France but pres had power to prohibit commerce for belligerent behavior against neutral shipping

v)Napoleon announced France would no longer interfere, Madison issued embargo against GB 1811 until it renounced restrictions of American shipping

d)The “Indian Problem” and the British

i)After dislodgement by Americans, Indians looked to Brits for protection

ii)William Henry Harrison had been a promoter of Western expansion (Harrison Land Law 1800), named governor of Indiana 1801 by Jefferson. Offered Indians ultimatum: become farmers and assimilate or move to West of Miss.

iii)By 1807 tribes mainly ceding land. After Chesapeake incident, however, Brits began to renew Indian friendships to begin defense of invasion into Can

e)Tecumseh and the Prophet

i)The Prophet was Indian leader inspired religious revival, rejection of white culture. Attracted thousands from many tribes at Tippecanoe Creek. Prophet’s brother Tecumseh led joint effort to oppose white civilization

ii)Starting 1809 began to unite tribes of Miss. valley, 1811 traveled south to add tribes of the South to alliance

iii)1811 Battle of Tippecanoe, Harrison defeated Prophet’s followers and destroyed tribal confederacy. However, thru 1812 continued to attack settlers, encouraged by Brit agents—Americans believed end only thru Can. Invasion

i)“Frontiersman” in N wanted Canada, those in S wanted to acquire Spanish Florida in order to stop Indian attacks, gain access to rivers w/ port access

ii)1810 setters in W. Florida captured Spanish fort at Baton Rouge, President Madison agreed to annex territory- Spain Britain’s ally, made pretext for war

iii)By 1812 “war harks” elected during 1810 elections eager for war- some ardent nationalists seeking territorial expansion, others defense of Republican values

iv)Speaker Henry Clay of Kentucky and John Calhoun of SC led Republicans in pressing for Canadian invasion- Madison declared war June 18, 1812

i)Americans forced to surrender Detroit and Fort Dearborn (Chicago) in first months. On seas American frigates and privateers successful, but by 1813 Brit navy (less occupied w/ Napoleon) devoted resources and imposed blockade

ii)US began to have success in Great Lakes- Oliver Perry beat Brits at Put-In-Bay 1813, burned capital at York. William Henry Harrison victorious at Battle of the Thames- disheartened Natives of Northwest and diminished ability to defend claims

iii)Andrew Jackson defeated Creek Indians @ Battle of Horseshoe Bend 1814, continued invasion into Florida and captured Pensacola Sept 1814

b)Battles With the British

i)After Nap surrendered 1814 England prepared to invade US, landed armada in Chesapeake region. Aug 1814 captured and burned Washington

ii)Americans at Fort McHenry in Baltimore repelled Brit attack in Sept. This battle is what Francis Scott Key witnessed, wrote “The Star-Spangled Banner”

iii)Brit also repelled in NY at Battle of Plattsburgh in Sept. January 1815 Andrew Jackson wildly successful at Battle of New Orleans- after treaty signed

c)The Revolt of New England

i)US failures 1812-1815 led to increased govt opposition. In NE opposition to war and Repub govt, Federalists led by Daniel Webtser led Congressional opposition. Federalists in NE dreamed of separate nation to escape tyranny of slaveholders and backwoodsmen

ii)Dec 1814 convention at Hartford led to nothing b/c of news of Jackson’s smashing success at New Orleans. Two days later news of peace treaty arrived

i)Aug 1814 John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, Albert Gallatin met in Ghent, Belgium w/ Brit diplomats. Final treaty did little but end fighting- US dropped call to end impressments, Brit dropped call for Indian buffer in NW

ii)Brit accepted b/c exhausted + indebted after Napoleonic conflict, US believed w/ end of Eur conflict less commercial interference would occur

iii)Treaty of Gent signed Dec 1814, free trade agreement 1815later Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817 led to disarmament on Great Lakes

iv)War disastrous to Natives, lands captured in fighting never restored, most important allies now gone from NW


Chapter 07 - The Jeffersonian Era

ii)By 1815 no state had a comprehensive public school system, schooling primary by private institutions open only to those who could pay. Most were aristocratic in outlook, trained students to become elite. Few schools for poor

iii)Idea of “republican mother” to train new generation could not be ignorant, late 18thcentury women began to have limited education to make them better wives and mothers- no professional training

iv)Attempts to educate “noble savages” in white culture and reform tribes, African Americans very little schooling- literacy rate very small

v)Higher education not public, private contribution + tuition necessary, students mostly from prosperous, propertied families. Little professional education

i)Most doctors learned from established practitioners, struggled w/ introduction of science and combating superstition. Doctors often used dangerous and useless treatments.

ii)Medical profession used its new “scientific” method to justify expanding control to new care- childbirths by doctor and not midwives

c)Cultural Aspirations in the New Nation

i)After Eur independence ppl wanted cultural independence, literary and artistic achievements to rival those of Europe

ii)Nationalism could be found in early American schoolbooks, Noah Webster wanted patriot education- American Spelling Book and American Dictionary of the English Languageestablished national standard of words and usage, simplified and Americanized system of spelling created

iii)High literacy rate and large reading public due to wide circulation of newspapers and political pamphlets. Most printers used cheaper English material, American writers struggled to create strong native literature

(1)Charles Brockden Brown used novels to voice American themes

(2)Washington Irving wrote American fold tales, fables- Rip Van Winkle

(3)Histories that glorified past- Mercy Otis Warren History of the Revolution 1805 emphasized heroism, Mason Weems Life of Washington 1806. History used to instill sense of nationalism

i)Revolution detached churches from govt + elevated liberty and reason, by 1790s few members of formal churches, some embraced “deism”

ii)Books and articles attacking religious “superstitions” popular, Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reason.

iii)Skepticism led to “universalism” + “unitarianism”, @ first within New England Congregational Church, later separate- rejected predestination, salvation for all, Jesus only great religious teacher not son of God

iv)Spread of rationalism led to less commitment to organized churches + denominations considered too formal and traditional, comeback starting 1801

e)The Second Great Awakening

i)Origin 1790s from efforts to fight spread of religious rationalism. Baptists, Presbyterian, Methodists (founded by John Wesley) successful at combating New Light dissenters (ppl who made religion more compatible w/ rationalism)

ii)By 1800 awakening that began at Yale had spread throughout country and to the west, “camp meetings” by evangelical ministers produced religious frenzy

iii)Second Great Awakening called individuals to readmit God + Christ into daily life, reject skeptical rationalism. New sects rejected predestination, combined piety w/ belief of God as active force whose grace achieved thru faith + works

iv)Accelerated growth of new sects as opposed to return to established churches, provided sense of order + social stability to ppl searching for identity

v)Women particularly drawn to revivalism b/c women more numerous in certain regions, movement of industrial work out of home led to personal and social strains that religion was used to compensate for

vi)Revival led to rise of black preachers who interpreted religious message of salvation available to all into right to freedom

vii) Native American dislocation and defeats after Revolution created sense of crisis and led to Indian religious fervor- missionaries active in south led to conversion, in North prophet Handsome Lake encouraged Christian missionaries and restoration of traditional Iroquois culture

2)Stirrings of Industrialism

i)America imported technological advances from England. Brit govt attempted to prevent spread of their tech, but immigrants introduced new machines to America. Samuel Slater built mill in RI 1790, first factory in America

ii)American inventor Oliver Evans created automated flower mill, Eli Whitney revolutionized weapons making and

iii)Invented cotton gin in 1793. Growth of textile industry in England created great demand for cotton, cotton gin allowed for easy separation of cotton seed from cotton allowed tremendous amount of cotton to be cleaned, new business led slavery became more important than ever.

iv)In North cotton supply led NE entrepreneurs to create American textile industry in 1820s/30s- as N became increasingly industrial S more firmly wedded to agriculture

v)His interchangeable parts for weapons invented during Quasi War w/ France adopted by other manufactures for other complicated products

i)Industrialization required transporting raw materials to factories and finished goods to create large domestic market for mass-production, US lacked system

ii)To enlarge American market US merchants looked to expand overseas trade, Congress 1789 passed tariff bills that favored American ships in American ports, stimulated growth of domestic shipping. War in Eur in 1790s led US merchants to take over most of trade btwn Eur and Western hemisphere

iii)Improvement in inter-state and interior transport led by improved river transport by new steamship

iv)Oliver Evans had invented efficient steam engine for boats and machinery, Robert Fulton + Robert Livingston perfected steamboat and brought it to national attention w/ theirClermont

v)Turnpike era began 1792 w/ corporate construction of turnpikes, but b/c needed to turn profit were generally short and only in densely populated areas

i)America remained largely rural and agrarian nation, only 3% lived in towns of more than 8,000 in 1800 census—yet there were signs of change

ii)Major US cities such as New York + Philadelphia large and complex enough to rival secondary cities of Europe

iii)Urban lifestyle produced affluent people who sought amenities, elegance, dress, and diversions- music, theater, dancing, horse racing

a)The Federal City and the “People’s President”

i)French architect Pierre L’Enfant designed city on grand scale, but Washington remained little more than provincial village w/ few public buildings

ii)Jefferson acted in spirit of democratic simplicity, made his image plain, disdain for pretension. Eliminated aura of majesty surrounding presidency

iii)Political genius, worked as leader of his party to give Republicans in Congress direction, used appointments as political weapon. Won 1804 reelection easily

i)Washington and Adams had increased expenditures, debt, taxation. Jefferson 1802 had Congress abolish all internal taxes leaving only land sales and customs duties, cut govt spending, halved debt

ii) Scaled down armed forces, cut navy due to fear of limiting civil liberty + civilian govt, promoting overseas commerce instead of agriculture

iii)At same time established US Military Academy @ West Point 1802, built up navy after 1801 threats by pasha of Tripoli in Mediterranean following Jefferson’s end to paying ransom demanded by Barbary pirates

c)Conflict With The Courts

i)Judiciary remained in hands of Federalist judges, congress repealed Judiciary Act of 1801 eliminating judgeships Adam’s filled before leaving office

ii)Case of Marbury v. Madison 1803 btwn Justice of Peace William Marbury and Sec of State James Madison

(1)Supreme Court ruled Congress exceeded its authority in creating a statute of the Judiciary Act of 1789 b/c Constitution had already defined judiciary

(2)Court asserted that the act of Congress was void. Enlarged courts power

iii)Chief Justice John Marshall presided over case, battled to give fed govt unity and strength, established judiciary as branch coequal w/ exec and legislature

iv)Jefferson assaulted last Federalist stronghold, urged Congress to impeach obstructive judges. Tried to impeach justice Samuel Chase in 1805 but Republican Senate could not get 2/3 vote necessary- acquittal set precedent impeachment not purely a political weapon, above partisan disagreement

4)Doubling the National Domain

i)After failing to seize India Napoleon wanted power in New World. Spain held areas west of Mississippi, 1800 Treaty of San Ildefonso granted French this Louisiana. Also held sugar-rich West Indian islands Guadeloupe, Martinique, Santo Domingo (where slave revolt led by Toussaint L’ouverture put down)

ii)Jefferson unaware of Napoleon’s imperial agenda, pursued pro-French foreign policy- apptd pro-French Robert Livingston minister, secured Franco-American settlement of 1800, disapproved of black Santo Domingo uprising

iii)Reconsidered position when heard of secret transfer of Louisiana and seizure of New Orleans, alarmed n 1802 when Spanish intendant at New Orleans forbade transfer of American cargo to ocean going vessels (which was guaranteed in Pikcney Treaty of 1795)- this closed lower Miss. to US shippers

iv)Westerners demanded govt reopen river, Jefferson ordered Livingston negotiate purchase of New Orleans, in meantime expanded military and river fleet to give impression of New Orleans attack

v)Nap offered sale of whole Louisiana Territory. Plans for American empire awry b/c army decimated by yellow fever, reinforcements frozen

i)Livingston and James Monroe in Paris decided to proceed with sale of whole territory even though not authorized to do so by govt, treaty signed April 1803

ii)US paid $15 million to France, had to incorporate N.O. residents into Union

iii)Jefferson unsure US had authority to accept offer b/c power not specifically granted in Constitution, ultimately agreed constituted as treaty power. December 1803 territory handed over from Spain to France then US

iv)Govt organized Louisiana territory like Northwest territory w/ various territories to eventually to become states- Louisiana first, admitted 1812

c)Lewis and Clark Explore the West

i)Jefferson planned expedition across continent to Pacific Ocean in 1803 to gather geographical fats and investigate trade w/ Indians

ii)Lewis and Clark set out 1804 from Mississippi R. in St Louis w/ Indian Sacajawea as guide, reached pacific fall 1805

iii)Jefferson dispatched other explorers to other parts of Louisiana Territory, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike led two expeditions btwn Mississppi and Rocky Mts

i)Reelection of 1804 suggested nation approved of Jefferson’s acquisitions, but some NE Federalists known as Essex Junto felt expansion weakened power of Federalists + region . Felt only answer secession and “Northern Confederacy”

ii)Plan required support of NY, NJ, New England, but leading NY Federalist Alexander Hamilton refused support

iii)Turned to Vice President Aaron Burr (who had no prospect in own party after 1800 election deadlock) to be Federalist candidate for NY governor in 1804

iv)Hamilton accused Burr of treason and negative remarks about character, when Burr lost election blamed defeat on Hamilton’s malevolence

v)Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel 1804, Hamilton mortally wounded

vi)Burr, now political outcast, fled NY for West and along with General James Wilkinson, governor of Louisiana Territory, planned capture of Mexico from Spanish and possibly make his own empire. 1806 tried for treason, acquitted

vii)“Conspiracy” showed perils of central govt that remained deliberately weak w/ vast tracts of nominally controlled land, state of US as stable and united nation

i)US shipping expanded to control trade btwn Eur and W. Indies

ii)Napoleon’s Continental system forbade ships that had docked at any point in British ports from landing on continent- Berlin (1806) + Milan (1807) Decrees

iii) Britain’s “orders in council” required goods to continent be in ships that had at least stopped in British ports- response to Nap’s “Continental System”

iv)American ships caught btwn countries, but England greater threat b/c greater sea power and the worse offender

i)Brit Navy had terrible conditions, forced service called “impressments” used, many deserted when possible and joined Americans- to stop loss Brit claimed right to stop and search American merchant ships + reimpress deserters

ii)1807 Chesapeake-Leopard incident: Brit fired on US ship that refused search, US Minister James Monroe protested, GB refused to renounce impressments

i)To prevent future incidents that might bring war Jefferson proposed The Embargo 1807- prohibited US ship from leaving for any foreign port

ii)Created national depression, ship-owners + merchants of NE (mainly Federalists) hardest hit-before

iii)James Madison, Jefferson’s Sec of State, won election of 1808 but fierce opposition- led Jefferson to end Embargo, replaced with Non-Intercourse Act- reopened trade w/ all nations except GB + France

iv)1810 new Macon’s Bill No. 2 opened trade w/ GB + France but pres had power to prohibit commerce for belligerent behavior against neutral shipping

v)Napoleon announced France would no longer interfere, Madison issued embargo against GB 1811 until it renounced restrictions of American shipping

d)The “Indian Problem” and the British

i)After dislodgement by Americans, Indians looked to Brits for protection

ii)William Henry Harrison had been a promoter of Western expansion (Harrison Land Law 1800), named governor of Indiana 1801 by Jefferson. Offered Indians ultimatum: become farmers and assimilate or move to West of Miss.

iii)By 1807 tribes mainly ceding land. After Chesapeake incident, however, Brits began to renew Indian friendships to begin defense of invasion into Can

e)Tecumseh and the Prophet

i)The Prophet was Indian leader inspired religious revival, rejection of white culture. Attracted thousands from many tribes at Tippecanoe Creek. Prophet’s brother Tecumseh led joint effort to oppose white civilization

ii)Starting 1809 began to unite tribes of Miss. valley, 1811 traveled south to add tribes of the South to alliance

iii)1811 Battle of Tippecanoe, Harrison defeated Prophet’s followers and destroyed tribal confederacy. However, thru 1812 continued to attack settlers, encouraged by Brit agents—Americans believed end only thru Can. Invasion

i)“Frontiersman” in N wanted Canada, those in S wanted to acquire Spanish Florida in order to stop Indian attacks, gain access to rivers w/ port access

ii)1810 setters in W. Florida captured Spanish fort at Baton Rouge, President Madison agreed to annex territory- Spain Britain’s ally, made pretext for war

iii)By 1812 “war harks” elected during 1810 elections eager for war- some ardent nationalists seeking territorial expansion, others defense of Republican values

iv)Speaker Henry Clay of Kentucky and John Calhoun of SC led Republicans in pressing for Canadian invasion- Madison declared war June 18, 1812

i)Americans forced to surrender Detroit and Fort Dearborn (Chicago) in first months. On seas American frigates and privateers successful, but by 1813 Brit navy (less occupied w/ Napoleon) devoted resources and imposed blockade

ii)US began to have success in Great Lakes- Oliver Perry beat Brits at Put-In-Bay 1813, burned capital at York. William Henry Harrison victorious at Battle of the Thames- disheartened Natives of Northwest and diminished ability to defend claims

iii)Andrew Jackson defeated Creek Indians @ Battle of Horseshoe Bend 1814, continued invasion into Florida and captured Pensacola Sept 1814

b)Battles With the British

i)After Nap surrendered 1814 England prepared to invade US, landed armada in Chesapeake region. Aug 1814 captured and burned Washington

ii)Americans at Fort McHenry in Baltimore repelled Brit attack in Sept. This battle is what Francis Scott Key witnessed, wrote “The Star-Spangled Banner”

iii)Brit also repelled in NY at Battle of Plattsburgh in Sept. January 1815 Andrew Jackson wildly successful at Battle of New Orleans- after treaty signed

c)The Revolt of New England

i)US failures 1812-1815 led to increased govt opposition. In NE opposition to war and Repub govt, Federalists led by Daniel Webtser led Congressional opposition. Federalists in NE dreamed of separate nation to escape tyranny of slaveholders and backwoodsmen

ii)Dec 1814 convention at Hartford led to nothing b/c of news of Jackson’s smashing success at New Orleans. Two days later news of peace treaty arrived

i)Aug 1814 John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, Albert Gallatin met in Ghent, Belgium w/ Brit diplomats. Final treaty did little but end fighting- US dropped call to end impressments, Brit dropped call for Indian buffer in NW

ii)Brit accepted b/c exhausted + indebted after Napoleonic conflict, US believed w/ end of Eur conflict less commercial interference would occur

iii)Treaty of Gent signed Dec 1814, free trade agreement 1815later Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817 led to disarmament on Great Lakes

iv)War disastrous to Natives, lands captured in fighting never restored, most important allies now gone from NW


Author Updates

No one in history has provoked more controversy than Napoleon Bonaparte. Was he an enlightened ruler or brutal tyrant? Was he an insatiable warmonger or a defender of France against the aggression of the other great powers? Was he kind or cruel, farsighted or blinkered, a sophisticate or a philistine, a builder or a destroyer? Napoleon was at once all that his partisans laud, his enemies condemn, and much more. He remains fascinating, both because he so dramatically changed the course of history and had such a complex, paradoxical character.

One thing is certain, if the art of leadership is about getting what one wants, then Napoleon was among history’s greatest masters. He understood and asserted the dynamic relationship among military, economic, diplomatic, technological, cultural, psychological, and thus political power. War was the medium through which he was able to demonstrate his innate skills, leading his armies to victories across Europe. He overthrew France’s corrupt republican government in a coup then asserted near dictatorial powers. Those powers were then wielded with great dexterity in transforming France from feudalism to modernity with a new law code, canals, roads, ports, schools, factories, national bank, currency, and standard weights and measures. With those successes, he convinced the Senate to proclaim him France’s emperor and even got the pope to preside over his coronation. He reorganized swaths of Europe into new states and placed his brothers and sisters on the thrones.

This is Napoleon as has never been seen before. No previous book has explored deeper or broader into his seething labyrinth of a mind and revealed more of its complex, fascinating, provocative, and paradoxical dimensions. Napoleon has never before spoken so thoroughly about his life and times through the pages of a book, nor has an author so deftly examined the veracity or mendacity of his words. Within are dimensions of Napoleon that may charm, appall, or perplex, many buried for two centuries and brought to light for the first time.

Napoleon and the Art of Leadership is a psychologically penetrating study of the man who had such a profound effect on the world around him that the entire era still bears his name.

A small library could be stocked with books written about Napoleon the general, whose battles and campaigns have been studied extensively. Warriors, however, are not generally known for their diplomatic skills and Napoleon Bonaparte is no exception. After all, conquerors are accustomed to imposing rather than negotiating terms. For Napoleon, however, the arts of war and diplomacy meshed. Napoleon was often as brilliant and successful at diplomacy as he was at war, although at times he could also be as disastrous at the diplomatic table as he was on his final battlefield. William R. Nester’s Napoleon and the Art of Diplomacy: How War and Hubris Determined the Rise and Fall of the French Empire is the first comprehensive exploration of Napoleon the diplomat and how his abilities in that arena shaped his military campaigns and the rise and fall of the French empire.

Napoleon’s official diplomatic career lasted nearly two decades and involved relations with scores of kings, queens, ministers, diplomats, and secret agents across Europe and beyond. All those involved asserted their respective state (and often their private) interests across the entire span of international relations in which conflicts over trade and marriage were often inseparable from war and peace. For Napoleon, war and diplomacy were inseparable and complementary for victory. Much of Napoleon’s military success was built upon a foundation of alliances and treaties.

Although not always at war, Napoleon incessantly practiced diplomacy on a steady stream of international issues. Some of his noteworthy achievements in this arena included his 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio with the Austrians after he defeated them in the Italian campaign the 1807 Treaty of Tilsit, when he incorporated Tsar Alexander of Russia as his junior partner while France was still at war with Britain and, the 1812 Conference of Dresden, where the crowned heads of Europe allied with France and opened his massive (and disastrous) invasion of Russia.

Nester’s masterfully researched and written Napoleon and the Art of Diplomacy fills a gaping hole in Napoleonic literature by providing a vital and heretofore neglected dimension that allows readers to fully understand one of history’s most intriguing, complex, and powerful leaders.

About the Author: Dr. William R. Nester is a professor in the Department of Government and Politics at St. John’s University in New York and the author of more than a score of books on a wide variety of international relations topics including The First Global War: Britain, France, and the Fate of North America, 1756-1775 and Haughty Conquerors: Amherst and the Great Indian Uprising of 1763. He has spent nearly a dozen years living overseas doing research and traveling in more than eighty countries.


Review

"The Jeffersonian Vision is a solid and concise narrative of the Jefferson age."--Timothy C. Hemmis, H-War

"In continuing his laudable Art of American Power series, William Nester rubs the sheen off two of America's most famous founding fathers and shows that as presidents, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison naively engaged in economic and political policies that proved far more deadly to American interests than the armies and navies of its foes. Much more than a history lesson, there are strong warnings here for the present as Nester reminds us that a nation's ultimate foundation of power is its economy. An insightful portrait of the early missteps of American foreign policy."--Walter R. Borneman, author of 1812: The War That Forged a Nation


Bibliographic Essay

Over the past three decades or so, the period of history covered by this book has experienced a renaissance in historical writing, involving the production of many more books than can be cited in this essay. Consequently, this bibliography is very selective.

Much of the proliferation of works on the early Republic came from the formation of the Society for Historians of the Early American Republic (SHEAR) in 1977 and the launching of the Journal of the Early Republic (JER) in 1981. This organization and its journal have turned the period into one of the most exciting and significant in American history.

Since there were so many great men in the period, biographies, many of them multivolume, have been written and continue to flourish. Douglas Southall Freeman, seven volumes on Washington (1948&ndash1957) James Thomas Flexner, four volumes on Washington (1965&ndash1972) Dumas Malone, six volumes on Jefferson (1948&ndash1981) Irving Brant, six volumes on James Madison (1941&ndash1961) and Page Smith, two volumes on Adams (1962). Early in the twentieth century Albert Beveridge wrote four laudatory volumes on John Marshall (1916&ndash1919) that still stand up.

It seems that scarcely a year now passes that one or another of the Founders does not have his life portrayed in print. Probably the best single-volume study of Washington is Joseph J. Ellis, His Excellency: George Washington (2004). Good single-volume studies of other Founders are the following: Merrill D. Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (1970) for a superb brief life, see R. B. Bernstein, Thomas Jefferson (2003) Ron Chernow, Alexander Hamilton (2004), but Gerald Stourzh, Alexander Hamilton and the Idea of Republican Government(1970) excels in placing this leading Federalist in an eighteenth-century context John Ferling, John Adams: A Life (1992) Ralph Ketcham, James Madison: A Biography (1971), but for an excellent short biography, see Jack N. Rakove, James Madison and the Creation of the American Republic(1990) Jean Edward Smith, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation (1996), but for a good short study, see Charles F. Hobson, The Great Chief Justice: John Marshall and the Rule of Law (1996).

Each of these Founders also has his own mammoth papers project under way (or in the case of Hamilton, completed), each promising to publish virtually everything written by and to the great man. Nearly all the leading Founders have volumes of their selected writings available in the Library of America. Jefferson&rsquos exchange of letters with two of his fellow Founders is in two volumes edited by Lester J. Cappon, The Adams-Jefferson Letters (1959) and in three volumes edited by James Morton Smith, The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776&ndash1826 (1995).

Even Aaron Burr, forever disgraced but forever fascinating, has had two volumes of his correspondence edited by Mary-Jo Kline and published in 1984. The standard biography of him is Milton Lomask, Aaron Burr, 2 vols. (1979, 1982). The most recent life is a defense of Burr, Nancy Isenberg, Forgotten Founder: The Life of Aaron Burr (2007).

Many secondary figures in the period have excellent biographies. To name only several, see Talbot Hamlin, Benjamin Henry Latrobe (1955) Winifred E. Bernard, Fisher Ames: Federalist and Statesman, 1758&ndash1808 (1965) George C. Rogers Jr., Evolution of a Federalist: William Loughton Smith of Charleston, 1758&ndash1812 (1962) Robert Ernst, Rufus King: American Federalist (1968) Samuel Eliot Morison, Harrison Gray Otis, 1765&ndash1848: The Urbane Federalist (1969) Harry Ammon, James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity (1971) George Athan Billias, Elbridge Gerry: Founding Father and Republican Statesman (1976) John Mack Faragher, Daniel Boone: The Life and Legend of an American Pioneer (1992) James J. Kirschke, Gouverneur Morris: Author, Statesman, and Man of the World (2005) and Walter Stahr, John Jay: Founding Father(2005). Two collective studies of the Founders are Joseph J. Ellis, Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation (2000) and Gordon S. Wood, Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different (2006).

In the 1960s the origins of political parties commanded the attention of political scientists and political sociologists. Since these scholars were not historians, they were primarily concerned with forming generalizations about politics that were applicable to the experience of newly developing nations in the decade or so following World War II. Consequently, they were not always sensitive to the differentness of the past, and their books often presented a very ahistorical and anachronistic view of America&rsquos early political parties. See especially William Nesbit Chambers, Political Parties in a New Nation: The American Experience, 1776&ndash1809 (1963) Seymour Martin Lipset, The First New Nation: The United States in Historical and Comparative Perspective (1963) Rudolph M. Bell, Party and Faction in American Politics: The House of Representatives, 1789&ndash1801(1973) and John F. Hoadley, Origins of American Political Parties, 1789&ndash1803 (1986).

In more recent years, historians more sensitive to time and place have challenged this political science conception of &ldquothe first party system.&rdquo See Richard Buel Jr., Securing the Revolution: Ideology in American Politics, 1789&ndash1815 (Ithaca, 1972) Ronald P. Formisano, The Transformation of Political Culture: Massachusetts Parties, 1790s&ndash1840s (New York, 1983) Ralph Ketcham, Presidents Above Party: The First American Presidency, 1789&ndash1829 (1984) James Roger Sharp, American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis (1993) Stanley Elkins and Eric McKitrick, The Age of Federalism: The Early American Republic, 1788&ndash1800 (1993), which is a monumental study of the high politics of the 1790s sympathetic to the Federalists and Joanne B. Freeman, Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic (New Haven, 2001), which nicely captures the peculiar political culture of the 1790s. The first section of Sean Wilentz&rsquos monumental study The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln (2005) is pertinent to the early Republic Wilentz&rsquos work is a throwback to a traditional approach to politics, focusing on elections, parties, and the maneuvering of elite white males in government.

Most historians nowadays seek to write political history that views politics through the lenses of race, gender, and popular culture. Consequently, they are interested primarily in the symbols and theatrics of politics&mdashthe varied ways common people, including women and blacks, expressed themselves and participated in politics, whether in parades, dress, or drinking toasts. For examples, see Doron Ben-Atar and Barbara B. Oberg, eds., Federalists Reconsidered (1998) and Jeffrey L. Pasley, Andrew W. Robertson, and David Waldstreicher, eds., Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Political History of the Early Republic (2004). On popular politics in the 1790s, see Simon P. Newman, Parades and the Politics of the Street: Festive Culture in the Early American Republic (1997) and David Waldstreicher, In the Midst of Perpetual Fetes: The Making of American Nationalism, 1776&ndash1820 (1997).

Over the past three decades many historians have also developed a new conception of the early Republic, bridging the professional chasm that earlier separated those who concentrated on the colonial and Revolutionary periods from those who focused on the early Republic. Historians now tend to conceive of the Revolution much more broadly than they did in the past and have extended its reach into the early decades of the nineteenth century. Historians now write books that run from 1750 or 1780 to 1820 or 1840. This new periodization makes the Revolution far more significant and consequential for the early nineteenth century than it had been earlier.

As a result, there is a stronger sense of the changes that took place over this extended Revolutionary period, not just politically but socially and culturally. On this subject, see Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992). Over the past generation increasing numbers of historians have turned to social and cultural subjects rather than just focusing on prominent individuals. They now write about extended social developments that cut through the Revolutionary era and transcended the traditional political dates&mdashthe role of women and families, the emerging professions, the decline of apprenticeship, the rise of counting, the transformation of artisans, the changing of urban mobs, the development of the postal system, and so on. On these subjects, see Donald M. Scott, From Office to Profession: The New England Ministry, 1750&ndash1850 (1986) W. J. Rorabaugh, The Craft Apprentice: From Franklin to the Machine Age (1986) Patricia Cline Cohen, A Calculating People: The Spread of Numeracy in Early America (1982) W. J. Rorabaugh, The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition (1979) Paul G. Faler, Mechanics and Manufactures in the Early Industrial Revolution: Lynn, Massachusetts, 1780&ndash1860 (1981) Sean Wilentz, Chants Democratic: New York City and the Rise of the American Working Class, 1788&ndash1850 (1984) Paul A. Gilge, The Road to Mobocracy: Popular Disorder in New York City, 1763&ndash1834 (1987) and Richard R. John, Spreading the News: the American Postal System from Franklin to Morse (1995).

Even legal historians have become less interested in the decisions of Chief Justice Marshall and more interested in the relation between law and society. For examples, see William E. Nelson, Americanization of the Common Law: The Impact of Legal Change on Massachusetts Society, 1760&ndash1830 (1975) and Morton J. Horwitz, The Transformation of American Law, 1780&ndash1860 (1977). Much of this new legal research was inspired by James Willard Hurst. See his &ldquoOld and New Dimensions of Research in United States Legal History,&rdquo American Journal of Legal History, 23 (1979), 1&ndash20.

One of the most important contributors to this new look at the relation of the Revolution to the first few decades of the early Republic is the extraordinarily ambitious and fruitful project Perspectives on the American Revolution, supported by the United States Capitol Historical Society and conceived and led by Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert. For nearly twenty years, from the early 1980s to the end of the twentieth century, Hoffman and Albert, supplemented by occasional guest editors, brought out almost a dozen and a half volumes on various important issues connected with the American Revolution and its aftermath&mdasheverything from women, slavery, and Indians to religion, social developments, and patterns of consumption.

A host of issues has been enlivened by connecting the Revolution to the decades of the early Republic and emphasizing its cultural implications. The Enlightenment, for example, has been broadened to include politeness and civility and not just the growth of deism and reason. On this cultural conception of the Enlightenment, see Richard L. Bushman, The Refinement of America: Persons, Houses, Cities (1992) David S. Shields, Civil Tongues and Polite Letters in British America (1997) and Lawrence E. Klein, Shaftesbury and the Culture of Politeness: Moral Discourse and Cultural Politics in Early Eighteenth-Century England (1994). Henry F. May, The Enlightenment in America (1976), Robert A. Ferguson, The American Enlightenment, 1750&ndash1820 (1997), Gary L. McDowell and Jonathan O&rsquoNeill, eds., America and Enlightenment Constitutionalism(2006), and Andrew Burstein, Sentimental Democracy: The Evolution of America&rsquos Romantic Self-Image (1999) are important studies. On the influence of antiquity, see Carl J. Richard, The Founders and the Classics: Greece, Rome, and the American Enlightenment (1994) and Caroline Winterer, The Culture of Classicism: Ancient Greece and Rome in American Intellectual Life, 1780&ndash1910 (2002). On the origins of American exceptionalism, see Jack P. Greene, The Intellectual Construction of America: Exceptionalism and Identity from 1492 to 1800 (1993). The authoritative history of early American Freemasonry is Steven C. Bullock, Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730&ndash1840 (1996). The best historical study of citizenship is James H. Kettner, The Development of American Citizenship, 1608&ndash1870 (1978).

On the creation of the new national government, see the surveys by Stanley Elkins and Eric McKitrick, The Age of Federalism: The Early American Republic, 1788&ndash1800 (1993) and John C. Miller, The Federalist Era, 1789&ndash1801 (1960). On the creation of a federal bureaucracy, see the pathbreaking work by Leonard D. White, The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History (1948). For the English model of a &ldquofiscal-military&rdquo state, see John Brewer, The Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688&ndash1788 (1989). Particularly important for understanding the Hamiltonian vision of this &ldquofiscal-military&rdquo state is Max M. Edling, A Revolution in Favor of Government: Origins of the U.S. Constitution and the Making of the American State (2003). For other accounts of state-building in the 1790s, see Carl Prince, The Federalists and the Origins of the U.S. Civil Service (1978) and especially Richard R. John, Spreading the News: The American Postal System from Franklin to Morse (1995). Richard H. Kohn, Eagle and Sword: The Federalists and the Creation of the Military Establishment in America, 1783&ndash1802 (1975) is important for understanding the Federalists&rsquo goals. Samuel Flagg Bemis&rsquos, Jay&rsquos Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy (1923) and Pinckney&rsquos Treaty: A Study of America&rsquos Advantage from Europe&rsquos Distress, 1783&ndash1800 (1926) are classics on foreign policy in the 1790s. Jerald A. Combs, The Jay Treaty: Political Battleground of the Founding Fathers (1970) is broader than its title would suggest.

On the origins of the Bill of Rights, see Patrick T. Conley and John P. Kaminiski, eds., The Bill of Rights and the States: The Colonial and Revolutionary Origins of American Liberties (1991) Richard Labunski, James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights (2006) and Leonard W. Levy, Origins of the Bill of Rights (1999). For a modern analysis of the constitutional significance of the Bill of Rights, see Akhil Reed Amar, The Bill of Rights: Creation and Reconstitution (1998).

On financial matters in the 1790s, see E. James Ferguson, The Power of the Purse: A History of Public Finance, 1776&ndash1790 (1961) and Edwin J. Perkins, American Public Finance and Financial Services, 1700&ndash1815 (1994).

Leland D. Baldwin, Whiskey Rebels: The Story of a Frontier Uprising (1939) and William Hogeland, The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels Who Challenged America&rsquos Newfound Sovereignty (2006) are narratives of the insurrection, while Thomas P. Slaughter, The Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution (1986) is more analytical.

Richard Hofstadter, The Idea of a Party System: The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780&ndash1840 (1969) is a lucid account that does not quite break from the anachronistic secondary sources on which it is based. For the emergence of the Republican party, see Noble E. Cunningham Jr., The Jeffersonian Republicans: The Formation of Party Organization, 1789&ndash1801 (1957). Lance Banning, The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology (1978) is crucial for understanding the intellectual fears that held the Republican party together but Joyce Appleby, Capitalism and a New Social Order: The Republican Vision of the 1790s (1984) better captures the optimistic market orientation of the Northern Republicans. For the classic account of the ideology that underlay the Revolution and the Republicans&rsquo fear of state power, see Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (1967). On the extralegal associations that promoted the Republican party, see Eugene Perry Link, Democratic-Republican Societies, 1790&ndash1800 (1942) and Albrecht Koschnik, &ldquoLet a Common Interest Bind Us Together&rdquo: Associations, Partisanship, and Culture in Philadelphia, 1775&ndash1840 (2007).

On the French Revolution in America, see Charles D. Hazen, Contemporary American Opinion of the French Revolution (1897). Jay Winik, The Great Upheaval: America and the Birth of the Modern World, 1788&ndash1800 (2007) has brief but stirring accounts of the French Revolution and Catherine the Great&rsquos Russia, along with a discussion of America in the 1790s. On French influence in American affairs, see Harry Ammon, The Genet Mission (1973).

On John Adams and the crisis of the late 1790s, see Alexander DeConde, The Quasi-War: Politics and Diplomacy in the Undeclared War with France, 1797&ndash1801 (1966) Stephen G. Kurtz, The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795&ndash1800 (1957) and John Patrick Diggins, John Adams (2003). Manning J. Dauer, The Adams Federalists (1953) captures some of the desperation of the High Federalists in 1798. On Adams&rsquos public life, in addition to John Ferling, John Adams: A Life (1992), see James Grant, John Adams: A Party of One (2005). David McCullough, John Adams (2001) is more a sensitive account of Adams&rsquos marriage to Abigail than an analysis of his public career. Other perceptive studies of Adams&rsquos character include Joseph J. Ellis, Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams (1993) and Peter Shaw, The Character of John Adams (1976). For Adams&rsquos political theory, see John R. Howe Jr., The Changing Political Thought of John Adams (1964) and C. Bradley Thompson, John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty (1998).

On the press in the 1790s, see Jeffrey L. Pasley, &ldquoThe Tyranny of the Printers&rdquo: Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic (2001) and Marcus Daniel, Scandal and Civility: Journalism and the Origins of American Politics (2009). On immigration in the 1790s, see Marilyn C. Baseler, &ldquoAsylum for Mankind&rdquo: America, 1607&ndash1800 (1998) and Michael Durey, Transatlantic Radicals and the Early American Republic (1997). The Alien and Sedition Acts are best covered in James Morton Smith, Freedom&rsquos Fetters: The Alien and Sedition Laws and American Civil Liberties(1956). But for understanding the peculiar eighteenth-century context in which freedom of the press has to be viewed, see Leonard W. Levy, Emergence of a Free Press (rev. ed., 1985). For the Republicans&rsquo response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, see William J. Watkins, Reclaiming the American Revolution: The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions and Their Legacy (2004).

The watershed election of 1800 has attracted much recent historical attention. See James Horn, Jan Ellen Lewis, and Peter S. Onuf, eds., The Revolution of 1800: Democracy, Race, and the New Republic (2002) Susan Dunn, Jefferson&rsquos Second Revolution: The Electoral Crisis of 1800 and the Triumph of Republicanism (2004) John Ferling, Adams vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800 (2004) Bruce Ackerman, The Failure of the Founding Fathers: Jefferson, Marshall, and the Rise of Presidential Democracy (2005) and Edward J. Larson, A Magnificent Catastrophe: The Tumultuous Election of 1800, America&rsquos First Presidential Campaign (2007). An earlier work, Daniel Sisson, The American Revolution of 1800 (1974), tries to capture the radical meaning of Jefferson&rsquos election, but it does not succeed as well as James S. Young, The Washington Community, 1800&ndash1828 (1966), which, despite an unhistorical focus, rightly stresses the Republicans&rsquo fear of power.

For the Jeffersonians in power, see Marshall Smelser, The Democratic Republic, 1801&ndash1815 (1968) Nobel E. Cunningham Jr., The Jeffersonian Republicans in Power: Party Operations, 1801&ndash1809 (1963) and Forrest McDonald, The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson (1976).

On banking in Jeffersonian America, see Bray Hammond, Banks and Politics from the Revolution to the Civil War (1957) Howard Bodenhorn, State Banking in Early America: A New Economic History (2003) and J. Van Fenstermaker, The Development of American Commercial Banking: 1782&ndash1837 (1965). For Jefferson&rsquos problems with debt, both public and private, see the illuminating study by Herbert E. Sloan, Principle and Interest: Thomas Jefferson and the Problem of Debt (1995). On urban development, see David T. Gilchrist, ed., The Growth of the Seaport Cities, 1790&ndash1825 (1967).

On Gallatin, see Henry Adams, The Life of Albert Gallatin (1879) and Raymond Walters Jr., Albert Gallatin: Jeffersonian Financier and Diplomat (1957). Theodore J. Crackel, Mr. Jefferson&rsquos Army: Political and Social Reform of the Military Establishment, 1801&ndash1809 (1987) and Robert M. S. McDonald, Thomas Jefferson&rsquos Military Academy: The Founding of West Point (2004) explain the paradox of the warhating, anti-military Jefferson founding West Point.

On Jefferson&rsquos dismantling of the Federalist bureaucracy, see Leonard D. White, The Jeffersonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1801&ndash1829 (1951). See also Noble E. Cunningham Jr., The Process of Government Under Jefferson (1979) and Robert M. Johnstone Jr., Jefferson and the Presidency (1979). Of course, as in all periods of Jefferson&rsquos life, the appropriate volumes of Dumas Malone&rsquos biography are helpful.

David Hackett Fischer, The Revolution of American Conservatism: The Federalist Party in the Era of Jeffersonian Democracy (1965), looks at party competition in the early nineteenth century with fresh eyes. Indispensable for understanding politics in the early Republic is Philip Lampi&rsquos monumental Collection of American Election Data, 1787&ndash1825. The collection of data for presidential, congressional, gubernatorial, and state legislative elections is available online via the American Antiquarian Society&rsquos Web page: &ldquoA New Nation Votes: American Election Returns, 1787&ndash1825.&rdquo On the right to vote, see Chilton Williamson, American Suffrage: From Property to Democracy, 1760&ndash1860 (1960) and Alexander Keyssar, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States (2000).

On the Federalists&rsquo cultural reaction to the Jeffersonian victory, see Linda K. Kerber, Federalists in Dissent (1970) and William C. Dowling, Literary Federalism in the Age of Jefferson: Joseph Dennie and the Port Folio, 1801&ndash1811 (1999). See also James H. Broussard, The Southern Federalists, 1800&ndash1816 (1978). For John Randolph and the spirit of &lsquo98, see Norman K. Risjord, The Old Republicans: Southern Conservatism in the Age of Jefferson (1965). Fine studies of politics in two states are Donald J. Ratcliffe, Party Spirit in a Frontier Republic: Democratic Politics in Ohio, 1793&ndash1821 (1998) and Andrew Shankman, Crucible of American Democracy: The Struggle to Fuse Egalitarianism and Capitalism in Jeffersonian Pennsylvania (2004).

On the society of the early Republic, see Christopher Clark, Social Change in America: From the Revolution Through the Civil War (2006) Alice Felt Tyler, Freedom&rsquos Ferment: Phrases of American Social History from the Colonial Period to the Outbreak of the Civil War (1962) and especially Joyce Appleby, Inheriting the Revolution: The First Generation of Americans (2000). J. M. Opal, Beyond the Farm: National Ambitions in Rural New England (2008) is a sensitive and subtle study of ambition in the early Republic. On the excessive drinking in the early Republic, see W. J. Rorabaugh, The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition (1979). On rioting in the colleges, see Steven J. Novak, The Rights of Youth: American Colleges and Student Revolt, 1798&ndash1815 (1977). Paul A. Gilje, Rioting in America (1996), is the best survey of the general subject of rioting.

On the development of the West, see Malcolm J. Rohrbough, Trans-Appalachian Frontier: People, Societies, and Institutions, 1775&ndash1850 (3rd ed., 2008) and Reginald Horsman, The Frontier in the Formative Years, 1783&ndash1815 (1970). On the new cities of the West, see Richard C. Wade, The Urban Frontier: Pioneer Life in Early Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Lexington, and St. Louis (1964). Andrew R. L. Cayton has become the premier modern historian of the early Midwest. See his The Frontier Republic: Ideology and Politics in the Ohio Country, 1780&ndash1825 (1986) Frontier Indiana(1996) and a series of jointly edited volumes: Cayton and Peter S. Onuf, eds., The Mid-West and the Nation: Rethinking the History of an American Region (1990) Cayton and Fredrika J. Teute, eds., Contact Points: American Frontiers from the Mohawk Valley to the Mississippi, 1750&ndash1830(1998) Cayton and Susan E. Gray, eds., The American Midwest: Essays on Regional History (2001) and Cayton and Stuart D. Hobbs, eds., The Center of a Great Empire: The Ohio Country in the Early American Republic (2005).

Two especially important books that deal with the West and land speculation are Alan Taylor, William Cooper&rsquos Town: Power and Persuasion on the Frontier of the Early American Republic (1995) and Stephen Aron, How the West Was Lost: The Transformation of Kentucky from Daniel Boone to Henry Clay (1996). Land policy and land laws are covered in Malcolm J. Rohrbough, The Land Office Business: The Settlement and Administration of American Public Lands, 1789&ndash1837 (1968).

Writing on the Lewis and Clark expedition is immense. See Stephen Dow Beckham et al., The Literature of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: A Bibliography and Essays (2003). For a fast read, see Stephen E. Ambrose, Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West (1996). For a more scholarly study, see James P. Ronda, Finding the West: Explorations with Lewis and Clark (2001). Arthur Furtwangler, Acts of Discovery: Visions of America in the Lewis and Clark Journals (1999) and Thomas P. Slaughter, Exploring Lewis and Clark: Reflections on Men and Wilderness (2003) treat the journals very imaginatively. There are many selectively edited versions of the explorers&rsquo journals. One example is Frank Bergon, ed., The Journals of Lewis and Clark (1995).

On the Louisiana Purchase, see the superb narrative by Jon Kukla, A Wilderness So Immense: The Louisiana Purchase and the Destiny of America (2003) and the relevant chapters in George Dangerfield, Chancellor Robert R. Livingston of New York, 1746&ndash1803 (1960). For more analytical and contextual studies of the Purchase, see Peter J. Kastor, The Nation&rsquos Crucible: The Louisiana Purchase and the Creation of America (2004) and Alexander DeConde, This Affair of Louisiana (1976). On the Burr conspiracy, see the books cited earlier on Burr, together with Thomas Abernethy, The Burr Conspiracy (1954) and Buckner F. Melton Jr., Aaron Burr: Conspiracy to Treason (2002).

On the theories of America having a deleterious effect on all living creatures, Antonello Gerbi, The Dispute of the New World: The History of a Polemic, 1750&ndash1900 (1973) is basic. On the native peoples in this period, see Gregory Evans Dowd, A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle for Unity, 1745&ndash1815 (1992) Reginald Horsman, Expansion and American Indian Policy, 1783&ndash1812 (1967) Francis Paul Prucha, American Indian Policy in the Formative Years: The Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts, 1790&ndash1834 (1962) and Anthony F. C. Wallace, Jefferson and the Tragic Fate of the First Americans (1999). For a sensitive study of the irony in that tragic fate, see Bernard W. Sheehan, Seeds of Extinction: Jeffersonian Philanthropy and the American Indian (1973). For a pathbreaking work on Indian-white relations, see Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650&ndash1815 (1991). With the Iroquois in upstate New York and Canada, the ground was different, according to Alan Taylor, The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderlands of the American Revolution(2006). On the Cherokees, see two superb books by William G. McLoughlin, Cherokees and Missionaries, 1789&ndash1839 (1984) and Cherokee Renascence in the New Republic (1986).

On the politics of the judiciary in this period, see William R. Casto, The Supreme Court in the Early Republic: The Chief Justiceships of John Jay and Oliver Ellsworth (1995) Richard E. Ellis, The Jeffersonian Crisis: Courts and Politics in the Young Republic (1971) Andrew Shankman, Crucible of American Democracy: The Struggle to Fuse Egalitarianism and Capitalism in Jeffersonian Pennsylvania (2004) and Maeva Marcus, ed., Origins of the Federal Judiciary: Essays on the Judiciary Act of 1789 (1992). Indispensable for understanding the Supreme Court in its earliest years is Maeva Marcus et al., eds., The Documentary History of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1789&ndash1800 (1985&ndash). On the Court, see also the relevant volumes in the Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise History of the Supreme Court of the United States, the multi-volume history of the Court endowed by Justice Holmes on his death: Julius Goebel, Antecedents and Beginnings to 1801: History of the Supreme Court of the United States (1971) George Lee Haskins and Herbert A. Johnson, Foundations of Power: John Marshall, 1801&ndash1815 (1981).

In addition to the books on Marshall cited earlier, see R. Kent Newmyer, John Marshall and the Heroic Age of the Supreme Court (2001) see also Newmyer&rsquos superb biography of Story, Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story: Statesman of the Old Republic (1985).

The origins of judicial review are treated in Edward S. Corwin, The &ldquoHigher Law&rdquo Background of American Constitutional Law (1955) and Charles G. Haines, The American Doctrine of Judicial Supremacy (1932). For an important corrective to the idea that judicial review meant judicial supremacy, see Larry Kramer, The People Themselves: Popular Constitutionalism and Judicial Review (2004). Efforts to place Marbury v. Madison in historical context include Christopher Wolfe, The Rise of Modern Judicial Review: From Constitutional Interpretation to Judge-Made Law(1986) J. M. Sosin, The Aristocracy of the Long Robe: The Origins of Judicial Review in America (1989) Robert Lowry Clinton, Marbury v. Madison and Judicial Review (1989) and William E. Nelson, Marbury v. Madison: The Origins and Legacy of Judicial Review (2000). Especially important in understanding the development of judicial review is Sylvia Snowiss, Judicial Review and the Law of the Constitution (1990).

On the development of the corporation see Oscar and Mary Flug Handlin, Commonwealth: A Study of the Role of Government in the American Economy: Massachusetts, 1774&ndash1861 (1947, 1969) E. Merrick Dodd, American Business Corporations Until 1860, with Special Reference to Massachusetts (1954) Ronald E. Seavoy, The Origins of the American Business Corporation, 1784&ndash1855: Broadening the Concept of Public Service During Industrialization (1982) Hendrik Hartog, Public Property and Private Power: The Corporation of the City of New York in American Law, 1730&ndash1870 (1983) and Johann N. Neem, Creating a Nation of Joiners: Democracy and Civil Society in Early National Massachusetts (2008).

Benjamin Rush has yet to find a biographer worthy of his importance. But see Nathan G. Goodman, Benjamin Rush: Physician and Citizen, 1746&ndash1813 (1934) Carl Binger, Revolutionary Doctor: Benjamin Rush, 1746&ndash1813 (1966) and David F. Hawke, Benjamin Rush: Revolutionary Gadfly(1971). On education in the early Republic, see Lawrence A. Cremin, American Education: The National Experience, 1783&ndash1876 (1980) and Carl F. Kaestle, Pillars of the Republic: Common Schools and American Society, 1780&ndash1860 (1983). Important for understanding newspapers and the spread of information in the period are Richard D. Brown, Knowledge Is Power: The Diffusion of Information in Early America, 1700&ndash1865 (1989) Richard D. Brown, The Strength of a People: The Idea of an Informed Citizenry in America, 1650&ndash1870 (1996) and Frank Luther Mott, American Journalism: A History of American Newspapers in the United States Through 250 Years, 1690&ndash1940 (1941). On the emergence of humanitarian institutions, see Conrad E. Wright, The Transformation of Charity in Post-Revolutionary New England (1992).

On criminal punishment and penal reform, see Louis Masur, Rites of Execution: Capital Punishment and the Transformation of American Culture, 1776&ndash1865 (1989) Michael Meranze, Laboratories of Virtue: Punishment, Revolution, and Authority in Philadelphia, 1760&ndash1835 (1996) and Adam Jay Hirsch, The Rise of the Penitentiary: Prisons and Punishment in Early America (1992).

John Lauritz Larson, Internal Improvement: National Public Works and the Promise of Popular Government in the Early United States (2001) is the best study of the politics of internal improvements in the period.

On the development of various moral reform associations, see Charles I. Foster, An Errand of Mercy: The Evangelical United Front, 1790&ndash1837 (1960) and Clifford S. Griffin, Their Brothers&rsquo Keepers: Moral Stewardship in the United States, 1800&ndash1865 (1960). On missionaries, see Oliver Wendell Elsbree, The Rise of the Missionary Spirit in America, 1790&ndash1815 (1928) and William R. Hutchison, Errand to the World: American Protestant Thought and Foreign Missions (1987).

On women in the period, see Mary Beth Norton, Liberty&rsquos Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750&ndash1800 (1980) and Mary Kelley, Learning to Stand and Speak: Women, Education, and Public Life in America&rsquos Republic (2006). Linda K. Kerber has two important books on women in the early Republic: Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (1980) and Toward an Intellectual History of Women: Essays (1997). Rosemarie Zagarri, Revolutionary Backlash: Women and Politics in the Early American Republic(2007) is a particularly significant study.

The literature on slavery has been growing rapidly in the past several decades. Basic for understanding the subject are David Brion Davis&rsquos The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (1966) and his The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770&ndash1823 (1975). For the best and most thorough account of slave life in the Chesapeake and in the Low-country of South Carolina and Georgia, see Philip D. Morgan, Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and the Lowcountry (1998). Also indispensable are two books by Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America (1998) and Generations of Captivity: A History of African American Slaves (2003). Additional studies of slave culture are John W. Blassingame, The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Anti-Bellum South (1972) Sylvia R. Frey, Water from the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age (1991) Lawrence W. Levine, Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom (1977) and Shane White and Graham White, The Sounds of Slavery: Discovering African American History Through Songs, Sermons, and Speech (2005). Adam Rothman, Slave Country: American Expansion and the Origins of the Deep South (2005) and Steven Doyle, Carry Me Back: The Domestic Slave Trade in American Life (2005) are important for the domestic slave trade. Winthrop Jordan, White over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550&ndash1812 (1968) remains a classic.

For studies of the plantations of two important Founders, see Robert F. Dalzell Jr. and Lee Baldwin Dalzell, George Washington&rsquos Mount Vernon: At Home in Revolutionary America (1998) Henry Wiencek, An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America(2003) and Lucia C. Stanton, Free Some Day: The African-American Families of Monticello (2000). But for a detailed study of slavery at a less well known plantation, see Lorena S. Walsh, From Calabar to Carter&rsquos Grove: The History of a Virginia Slave Community (1997).

On Gabriel&rsquos Rebellion, see Douglas R. Egerton, Gabriel&rsquos Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 and 1802 (1993) and James Sidbury, Ploughshares into Swords: Race, Rebellion, and Identity in Gabriel&rsquos Virginia, 1730&ndash1810 (1997).

On free blacks, see Ira Berlin, Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South (1974) and Leon F. Litwack, North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790&ndash1860 (1961). Gary B. Nash has several important books on blacks in the Revolution and in the following decades: Forging Freedom: The Formation of Philadelphia&rsquos Black Community, 1720&ndash1840 (1988) Race and Revolution (1990) and The Forgotten Fifth: African Americans in the Age of Revolution (2006). See also Douglas R. Egerton, Death or Liberty: African Americans and Revolutionary America(2009). For abolitionism, see Arthur Zilversmit, The First Emancipation: The Abolition of Slavery in the North (1967) and especially Richard S. Newman, The Transformation of American Abolitionism: Fighting Slavery in the Early Republic (2002). Duncan J. MacLeod, Slavery, Race and the American Revolution (1974) demonstrates how republican equality helped to create racism.

The standard surveys of culture in the period are Russell B. Nye, The Cultural Life of the New Nation, 1776&ndash1830 (1960) and Jean V. Matthews, Toward a New Society: American Thought and Culture, 1800&ndash1830 (Boston, 1990). Especially important are Kenneth Silverman, A Cultural History of the American Revolution: Painting, Music, Literature, and the Theater in the Colonies and the United States from the Treaty of Paris to the Inauguration of George Washington (1976) and Joseph J. Ellis, After the Revolution: Profiles of Early American Culture (1979).

On the theater, see Jeffrey H. Richards, Drama, Theater, and Identity in the American New Republic (2005) and Heather Nathans, Early American Theater from the Revolution to Thomas Jefferson: Into the Hands of the People (2003). On painting, see Neil Harris, The Artist in American Society: The Formative Years, 1790&ndash1860 (1966) and James Thomas Flexner, The Light of Distant Skies: American Painting, 1760&ndash1835 (1969). Harris&rsquos book is particularly rich and imaginative. On the novel, see Cathy N. Davidson, Revolution and the Word: The Rise of the Novel in America(1986).

On Charles Willson Peale, see David R. Brigham, Public Culture in the Early Republic: Peale&rsquos Museum and its Audience (1995) and Charles Coleman Sellers, Charles Willson Peale (1947) and Mr. Peale&rsquos Museum: Charles Willson Peale and the First Popular Museum of Natural Science and Art (1980).

The most important work on religion in the early Republic is Nathan Hatch, The Democratization of American Christianity (1989). On the separation of church and state, see Thomas J. Curry, The First Freedoms: Church and State in America to the Passage of the First Amendment (1986) and A. James Reichley, Religion in American Public Life (1985). Other important studies of religion in the early Republic are Edwin S. Gaustad, Neither King nor Prelate: Religion and the New Nation, 1776&ndash1826 (1993) Mark Noll, America&rsquos God: From Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln(2002) Jon Butler, Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People (1990) Christine Leigh Heyrman, Southern Cross: The Beginnings of the Bible Belt (1997) and Dee E. Andrews, The Methodists and Revolutionary America, 1760&ndash1800: The Shaping of an Evangelical Culture(2000). The essays collected in Elwyn A. Smith, ed., The Religion of the Republic (1971), are important in relating evangelical Protestantism to republicanism.

Peter S. Field, The Crisis of the Standing Order: Clerical Intellectuals and Cultural Authority in Massachusetts, 1780&ndash1833 (1998) is important for the Unitarian controversy in Massachusetts. For the background to the Unitarian movement, see Conrad Wright, The Beginnings of Unitarianism in America (1955). On the New Divinity movement, see Joseph A. Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement: Calvinism, the Congregational Ministry, and Reform in New England Between the Great Awakenings (1981). John R. Boles, The Great Revival, 1787&ndash1805 (1972) and Donald G. Mathews, Religion in the Old South (1977) are important for evangelical revivalism. Jay P. Dolan, The American Catholic Experience: A History from Colonial Times to the Present (1985), is an excellent survey of American Catholicism.

The issue of the Founders and religion has generated an enormous amount of writing, especially in the past two decades. Among the most moderate and sensible accounts are James H. Hutson, Religion and the Founding of the American Republic (1998) Jon Meacham, American Gospel: God, the Founding Fathers, and the Making of a Nation (2006) Frank Lambert, The Founding Fathers and the Place of Religion in America (2003) and Forrest Church, So Help Me God: The Founding Fathers and the First Great Battle over Church and State (2007).

On millennialism, see James West Davidson, The Logic of Millennial Thought: Eighteenth-Century New England (1977) J.F.C. Harrison, The Second Coming: Popular Millenarianism, 1780&ndash1850 (1979) and Ruth Bloch, Visionary Republic: Millennial Themes in American Thought, 1756&ndash1800 (1985).

The underlying eighteenth-century liberal assumptions about international politics are explored in Felix Gilbert, To the Farewell Address: Ideas of Early American Foreign Policy (1961). Gilbert&rsquos book has not been taken as seriously as it ought to have been, largely because he relied heavily on French instead of English sources but the English materials back up his thesis. On another important work that investigates the thinking behind the commercial and foreign policy of the Jeffersonians, see Drew R. McCoy, The Elusive Republic: Political Economy in Jeffersonian America(1980). On the foreign policy itself, see Bradford Perkins, Prologue to War: England and the United States, 1805&ndash1812 (1968) and Robert W. Tucker and David C. Hendrickson, Empire of Liberty: The Statecraft of Thomas Jefferson (1990). Lawrence S. Kaplan, Jefferson and France: An Essay on Politics and Political Ideas (1967) captures the idealism of Jefferson. On the embargo, see Burton Spivak, Jefferson&rsquos English Crisis: Commerce, Embargo, and the Republican Revolution (1979). On the Southern Spanish-American borderlands, see J.C.A. Stagg, Borderlines in Borderlands: James Madison and the Spanish-American Frontier, 1776&ndash1821 (2009).

On the Barbary pirates, see Robert J. Allison, The Crescent Obscured: The United States and the Muslim World, 1776&ndash1815 (1995) and Frank Lambert, The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World (2005).

J.C.A. Stagg, Mr. Madison&rsquos War: Politics, Diplomacy, and Warfare in the Early American Republic, 1783&ndash1830 (1983) is indispensable for understanding the War of 1812, as, of course, is Henry Adams, History of the United States of America During the Administration of James Madison(1889&ndash1891). Roger H. Brown, The Republic in Peril: 1812 (1964) and Steven Watts, The Republic Reborn: War and the Making of Liberal America, 1790&ndash1820 (1987) have imaginative accounts of America&rsquos willingness to go to war. See also Bradford Perkins, Castlereagh and Adams: England and the United States, 1812&ndash1823 (1964).

Of the many brief accounts of the war, the best is Donald R. Hickey, The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict (1989). See also his Don&rsquot Give Up the Ship: Myths of the War of 1812 (2006). Jon Latimer, 1812: War with America (2007) views the war from a British or Canadian point of view. Richard Buel Jr., America on the Brink: How the Political Struggle over the War of 1812 Almost Destroyed the Young Republic (2005) provocatively indicts the Federalists for their seditious behavior. James M. Banner Jr., To the Hartford Convention: The Federalists and the Origins of Party Politics in Massachusetts, 1789&ndash1815 (1970) superbly describes the Federalists&rsquo attitudes and stresses their moderate purposes in calling the Convention.

On the economy of the period, see Curtis P. Nettles, The Emergence of a National Economy, 1775&ndash1815 (1962) Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman, eds., The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, vol. 2, The Long Nineteenth Century (2000) Douglas C. North, The Economic Growth of the United States, 1790&ndash1860 (1966) and James L. Huston, Securing the Fruits of Labor: The American Concepts of Wealth Distribution, 1765&ndash1900 (1998). Barbara M. Tucker, Samuel Slater and the Origins of the American Textile Industry, 1790&ndash1860 (1984) is the best study of that extraordinary entrepreneur.

The origins of liberal capitalism have generated a great deal of controversy among historians. Some historians have suggested that many farmers, especially in New England, were still pre-modern in their outlook, interested far more in patrimony and kin than in capitalistic aggrandizement. See James A. Henretta, The Origins of American Capitalism: Selected Essays (1991) Allan Kukikoff, The Agrarian Origins of American Capitalism (1992) and Christopher Clark, The Roots of Rural Capitalism: Western Massachusetts, 1780&ndash1860 (1990). Winifred Barr Rothenberg, From Market-Places to a Market Economy: The Transformation of Rural Massachusetts, 1750&ndash1850 (1992) sought to clear the &ldquotransition to capitalism&rdquo debate of a lot of theoretical cant by asking some basic questions about the rural New England economy that could be empirically verified.

Joyce Appleby, Inheriting the Revolution: The First Generation of Americans (2000) and Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992), using other evidence, endorse Rothenberg&rsquos view that rural capitalism arose at the end of the eighteenth century. Appleby, in particular, nicely captures the early nineteenth-century culture out of which the myth of the self-made man arose. On capitalism, see also Paul A. Gilje, ed., Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic (1997). Of the many works on artisans, see Howard B. Rock, Artisans of the New Republic: The Tradesmen of New York City in the Age of Jefferson (1978) Bruce Laurie, Working People of Philadelphia, 1800&ndash1850 (1980) Ronald Schultz, The Republic of Labor: Philadelphia Artisans and the Politics of Class, 1720&ndash1830 (1993) Charles G. Steffen, The Mechanics of Baltimore: Workers and Politics in the Age of Revolution, 1763&ndash1812 (1984) and Rosalind Remer, Printers and Men of Capital: Philadelphia Book Publishers in the New Republic (1996). Stuart M. Blumin, The Emergence of the Middle Class: Social Experience in the American City, 1760&ndash1900 (1989) is the best study of the development of the middle class out of an eighteenth-century society divided between a gentry elite and commoners.

On debt and bankruptcy, see Peter J. Coleman, Debtors and Creditors in America: Insolvency, Imprisonment for Debt and Bankruptcy, 1607&ndash1900 (1974) Scott A. Sandage, Born Losers: A History of Failure in America (2005) and Bruce H. Mann, Republic of Debtors: Bankruptcy in the Age of the American Independence (2002).

Susan Dunn, Dominion of Memories: Jefferson, Madison and the Decline of Virginia (2007) is the best book on the decay of the once most powerful state in the Union.


Watch the video: Jeffersonian Era: Part I - 1800 - 1808 - Thomas Jeffersons Presidency (August 2022).