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Anna Connell

Anna Connell


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Anna Connell was born in 1855. Her father, Arthur Connell, was curate of Christ Church, Harrogate. In 1865 Connell became the rector of St Mark's Church in West Gorton in Manchester. There was a great deal of unemployment in the area and in January 1879 Connell set up a soup kitchen and a relief fund for the local poor. In its first week over 1,500 gallons of soup, 1,000 loaves of bread and 10 tons of coal had been distributed by Connell and his helpers.

Anna Connell also became involved in community work. She was deeply concerned about the religious and racial conflicts in the city. After heavy drinking sessions, there were regular fights between the different groups in Manchester. According to Peter Lupson, the author of Thank God for Football (2006): "At that time, West Gorton was an area of tremendous deprivation. There was overcrowding, squalor, poor sanitation and poverty, and the ways in which the men of the community sought refuge from this was drink and gang warfare, which was called 'scuttling' in that era. We are talking about 500 people at a time involved in fighting. The local press reported 250-a-side – we are talking about warfare. Anna was grieved by seeing these men live such wasted lives and wanted to do something for them that could reverse the direction they were going in."

Anna Connell believed that the creation of male clubs would help improve the community spirit. With the help of William Beastow and Thomas Goodbehere from Brooks' Union Ironworks, she established a series of clubs. This included the creation of the St. Marks Church Cricket Team. The first recorded game took place against the Baptist Church from Macclesfield on 13th November, 1880. The youngest player was 15 year old Walter Chew. The eldest was Archibald MacDonald, a 20 year old iron moulder.

The team was a great success. The Archdeacon of Manchester told one meeting of Anna Connell's Men's Meetings: "It must be a great source of encouragement to see how the movement had been taken up, and the highest credit was due to Miss Connell for the way in which it had been carried out. No man could have done it - it required a woman's tact and skill to make it so successful."

That winter Anna Connell established the St. Marks Church football team. In 1884 the team was renamed the Gorton Association Football Club. The team included three players, Walter Chew, William Beastow and Edward Kitchen, who had been members of the original cricket team. Beastow also supplied a new kit of black shirts with a white cross.

In August 1887 the club moved to a new ground at Hyde Road. They also changed their name to Ardwick. Two years later the club built a grandstand capable of holding 1,000 spectators. The joined the Alliance League and in 1891 Ardwick won the Manchester Cup. The following season they won the cup again by beating Football League side Bolton Wanderers, 4-1 in the final.

The management committee of the Football League decided in April 1892 to form a Second Division of 12 clubs as well as expanding the First Division to 16 teams. Ardwick became a member of the Second Division and in the 1892-93 season finished in 5th place.

Joshua Parlby became the Ardwick manager in 1893. The following year Newton Heath joined the Second Division. Both clubs were based in Manchester but neither carried the name of England's second largest city. Parlby argued that the club should change its name from Ardwick to Manchester City. As Gary James points out in Manchester City: The Complete Record (2006): "The selection of the name was directly aimed at creating a side to represent all of Manchester and so, for perhaps the first time in the history of the region, there was an organisation to represent all Mancunians no matter what their social status, background, or place of birth." The management committee agreed and the club became known as Manchester City.

In 1894 Joshua Parlby signed Billy Meredith from Northwich Victoria. Aged only nineteen, this extremely talented outside right soon became a firm favourite with the fans and was dubbed the "Welsh Wizard" by his admirers. The following year he won his first international cap for Wales. However, he continued to work underground as a miner during the week until 1896, when Manchester City finally insisted that he give up his colliery job. That season he was top scorer with 12 goals.

Arthur Connell suffered from chronic bronchitis and in July 1897 he was forced to resign as rector of St Mark's Church. His wife had died two years previously and Anna took the decision to nurse her sick father. They moved to Southport, where it was hoped that the sea air would improve Arthur's health. He died in February 1899.

Anna went to live with her married sister in Walsall. Later the family moved to Darlaston where her brother-in-law became rector.

Anna Connell died after suffering a heart-attack on 21st October, 1924.

Of all the famous football clubs founded by churches, only one can claim to owe its origin to the initiative of a woman. That unique distinction belongs to Manchester City. It was a remarkable young woman, Anna Connell, a clergyman's daughter, who took the first important step that was to lead to the creation of one of the great football clubs of England. When she started a Working Men's Meeting at St Mark's Church, West Gorton, in 1879 out of concern for the rough, tough types who lived there at the time, she could hardly have guessed that her charitable action was to have lasting repercussions for the world of football.

Photographs of many faces stare down at Peter Lupson as he works in the study of his home near the Wirral. Some are of his family. Others belong to people long dead who have nevertheless loomed large in his life as he has spent the last 11 years writing a book which offers English football an opportunity to examine its soul.

These grainy black-and-white reproductions of Victorian visages are nothing less than a gallery of the game's founding fathers, to whom Lupson's recently published Thank God for Football (Azure, £9.99) pays painstaking tribute.

In researching his work, this 61-year-old languages teacher has established that 12 of the 38 clubs which have played in the Premier League can trace their origin directly back to churches or chapels. He has also traced the lives of those responsible for starting the teams, in the case of six of them, all the way to their graves, which he has located in various stages of disrepair.

Last month, Tottenham Hotspur, having been alerted to the fact that their originator, John Ripsher, lay in a pauper's grave in Dover, became the first of those six clubs to honour their beginnings, setting up a smart new headstone which acknowledges the role played by this former bible class teacher from All Hallows Church.

Other clubs mobilising to spruce up their founders' resting places include Blackburn Rovers, Bolton Wanderers, Manchester City and Swindon Town, while Everton have just been alerted to the current whereabouts of Benjamin Swift Chambers, responsible for their creation as St Domingo FC.

Honouring graves is one thing; honouring ideals another. It is Lupson's fond hope, nevertheless, that these acts of piety may yet prompt football's influential figures to reconsider some of the principles which inspired the graves' inhabitants.

The teams in question were instituted in the spirit of "muscular Christianity", a concept that was developed in the latter half of the nineteenth century which emphasised the importance of serving others and striving in a physical sense as part of the Christian's duty.

Fostered in public schools, and popularised in Thomas Hughes' 1857 book Tom Brown's Schooldays, this ideal was instilled in a generation of young clergymen who emerged from universities and took up positions in urban communities where working men were in danger of being lost in a mire of poverty, drunkenness and gang violence. In Tottenham, in Fulham, in Southampton, in Swindon, in Everton, in Bolton, in Manchester it was time to "play up and play the game".

"There were four key ingredients of character which it was believed the games field could develop," Lupson says. "Courage – which they called 'pluck', not ducking the hard challenge – fair play, unselfishness – you played for the team – and self-control. So football was seen very early on as a moral agent."

Thus, when a new rector arrived at St Mark's, in West Gorton, Manchester, in 1879, he encouraged his 27-year-old daughter, Anna Connell, to take on her own hard challenge.

"At that time, West Gorton was an area of tremendous deprivation," Lupson says. "There was overcrowding, squalor, poor sanitation and poverty, and the ways in which the men of the community sought refuge from this was drink and gang warfare, which was called 'scuttling' in that era.

"We are talking about 500 people at a time involved in fighting. Anna was grieved by seeing these men live such wasted lives and wanted to do something for them that could reverse the direction they were going in."

Miss Connell knocked on every door in the parish – by Lupson's estimation, that meant 1000 doors – to spread word of the weekly working men's club she was setting up in the parish hall. The first week, three people turned up. But soon, with the help of two churchwardens who worked at the local ironworks, that number became 100.

Playing sport was a natural adjunct to other activities such as singing, discussion and bible recitations. That meant, in the first instance, cricket. But soon the men wanted to keep fit in the winter for their cricket, and decided to do so through football.

"They called themselves St Mark's West Gorton FC," Lupson says. " Anna's father, Arthur, was the first president, and that club exists today because of Anna Connell knocking on all those doors and not giving up, and it's called Manchester City."


You asked: Who was Erie School District's JoAnna Connell?

Elementary school is named after an English teacher whose career lasted more than 43 years.

JoAnna Connell Elementary School has been getting a lot of attention lately.

ServErie announced on Nov. 10 that it chose the school at 1830 E. 38th St. as the site of its large-scale community service project for the summer of 2019.

And three days earlier, on Nov. 7, the Erie School District said Connell is on its list of schools to get updated as part of the district's $80.8 million building-improvement plan.

But even before those two big initiatives became public, a reader was wondering about the school. The reader sent the Erie-Times News a query: "Who is/was JoAnna Connell?"

JoAnna Connell was one of the most celebrated teachers in the history of the Erie School District.

Connell, who taught English in the district for more than 43 years, was so beloved that the Erie School Board named JoAnna Connell Elementary School after her when the school was dedicated on Nov. 13, 1958 &mdash 17 years after Connell retired, in 1941, and six years before she died at 86 on Oct. 9, 1964.

"The United States is a great nation because of people like Miss Connell who have devoted their lives to education," Erie schools Superintendent John Hickey said at the dedication, according to the Erie Daily Times.

Connell was unable to attend the dedication &mdash health issues seemed to be the reason &mdash but plenty of other people did. They included Connell's niece and the keynote speaker, Jess Gorkin, the editor of Parade magazine, the Sunday newspaper supplement with tens of millions of readers.

Based on how others described Connell, "She must be a truly outstanding person," Gorkin said.

Connell, who was born in Franklin Township in 1878, graduated from Edinboro Normal College, now Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, and Grove City College. She started teaching in the late 1890s when she was paid $25 a month.

Connell taught at Burton Elementary School and at Academy, Central and Strong Vincent high schools, finishing her career at Strong Vincent.

Connell was "one of the exceptional teachers of all time in Erie," Superintendent Joseph Zipper said upon her death.

Her students were Connell's legacy. She was known to take a personal interest in their success, and those she taught grew up to become some of the most influential people connected to Erie during her era.

Her former students, according to her obituary, included U.S. District Judge Gerald Weber Col. Philip G. Cochran, the daring World War II fighter pilot John Cochran, president of Lyons Transportation Co. George M. Mead, a publisher of the Erie Times-News U.S. Rep. James Weaver, who represented Erie in Congress from 1963 to 1965 and Erie County District Attorney Edward H. Carney, who was later elected an Erie County judge.

Carney was among those who said Connell inspired him. She taught him at Strong Vincent.

Connell "was truly one of the unforgettable people one would ever meet," Carney said upon her death. "She ruled her class with an iron hand, but she was very warm &mdash a lovable person."

Connell, who was not married, made her mark beyond the classroom.

She was a suffragette who helped found the Erie Chapter of the League of Women Voters shortly after the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, according to the book, "Erie History &mdash the Women's Story." Connell also helped organize the Erie chapter of the American Federation of Teachers.

Connell is one of three educators who have Erie School District schools named after them. The others are John C. Diehl, of Diehl Elementary School (built in 1954), who served as Erie School District superintendent from 1922 to 1935 and who died in 1952 and Elizabeth Pfeiffer, another legendary teacher who started her career in 1911, retired 52 years later and died in 1984. Pfeiffer shares the name of Pfeiffer-Burleigh Elementary School (built in 1980) with the famous composer and singer Harry T. Burleigh, an Erie native who died in 1949.

Having a building named after you when you are living, as Connell and Pfeiffer did, is quite an achievement. And Connell had more than just a school named after her.

By order of Erie Mayor Art Gardner, Nov. 13, 1958 &mdash the day that JoAnna Connell Elementary School was dedicated &mdash was declared JoAnna Connell Day.


Anna Rawhiti-Connell: A weight like no other

Anna Rawhiti-Connell's weight has been the albatross around her neck for 20 years. Despite worrying weight loss surgery might buy into oppressive beauty standards, she surrendered to the science - and found power in that surrender.

On Saturday, I baked sourdough. Seven hundred and fifty Covid years after this infernal trend kicked off, I got to make bread like everyone else.

I missed the first round of this return to simple pleasures because on February 17 this year, I had a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, a type of weight loss surgery, and trying to eat bread back then was akin to swallowing glue.

For half of my adult life, my body mass index has classified me as morbidly obese. Dead fat. My physical weight has played second fiddle to the psychological weight of it all. The albatross around my neck has weighed more than me for 20 years.

In 2018 I was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. It felt like a brand on my skin, glowing red hot with shame, a permanent marker of the state I was in. I would need a book deal to try and unpack the impact of our shame and blame culture on the healthcare obese people seek out and receive.

I have stood blinded, paralysed, inert, as if trapped in my own personal Times Square, surrounded by flashing billboards and scrolling ticker tape messages that tell me I am not good enough.

I have been dieting since I was 18. I am now 40. I have tried being fat and happy. I have followed body positivity posts on Instagram hoping to absorb acceptance by osmosis. I have read the second wave feminists. I have been angry. I logically understand the constructs, ideologies and industries that prosper from my confidence deficit but I have only been able to castigate myself for not being able to recondition my thinking. I genuinely celebrate those who have mastered the art of acceptance.

The fight to reject the pervasive Western norm has felt as impossible as losing 10 kilograms to me. I have been caught between two opposing forces, neither of which allowed me to be honest about how I feel about my weight, my health and my own happiness. On one side, the impossibly high standards of beauty that warp how we see ourselves and each other. I have stood blinded, paralysed, inert, as if trapped in my own personal Times Square, surrounded by flashing billboards and scrolling ticker tape messages that tell me I am not good enough.

On the other side, the idea that by losing weight I’d be buying into that oppression and subjugation. My sneaking suspicion that I’d be happier if I lost weight has felt like a betrayal of all I hold dear, the very values that shape me. I am weak-willed for wanting it and even weaker still for not being able to accept myself as I am.

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The option of weight loss surgery presented itself to me almost by accident. I had gone so far as to begin the process of entering myself into what’s described as a ‘post code lottery’ for publicly funded surgery. Access to surgery varies between District Health Boards in New Zealand. Between 2013 and 2015, there were 1.1 operations per 1000 people funded by the Canterbury DHB while the Waitemata DHB funded 8.8 operations. Both DHBs serve populations of similar sizes with similar percentages of people affected by obesity. New Zealand’s overall rate of public funding for weight loss surgery is half the rate of the United Kingdom and Australia. New Zealand also has the third highest adult obesity rate in the OECD.

Over the next few weeks I once again contemplated whether I will need to burn my feminist card at the doors of the operating theatre. As I thought about how to tell people, I considered using "I’ve had the Paula Bennett" as quippy shorthand.

An eight-page questionnaire arrived from Waitemata DHB. Each question is designed to assess your suitability for surgery. Each question ripped open a wound. As I handwrote the answers, I scratched out a history of me.

"Please list what you have already tried to lose weight" the form enquired innocently.

"EVERYTHING!" is not the answer they want so instead I diligently documented years of deprivation and threw in a couple of things I only ever dared myself to try. "Beyonce’s cayenne pepper diet" I lied, hoping to signal that my desperation had become hazardous to my health.

I was informed by my doctor that I was a low priority candidate for the public health system, and it wasn’t until I was looking through our health insurance policy to see if my husband’s oral surgery was covered that I noticed weight loss surgery was. Weight loss surgery is expensive. Within the private system it costs around $23,000. I am lucky to be able to afford health insurance and to have that choice. Many cannot and do not.

I made an appointment at an Auckland clinic the day after clearing the cost hurdle. The surgeon explained that the latest research suggests your body will fight you on every kilo you try to lose, and diet and exercise have been proven to be ineffective in losing and maintaining weight loss on their own. The battle that had raged for years in my head immediately entered détente with my body. Science brokered a peace treaty. I made the decision to have surgery instantly.

Over the next few weeks I once again contemplated whether I will need to burn my feminist card at the doors of the operating theatre. As I thought about how to tell people, I considered using "I’ve had the Paula Bennett" as quippy shorthand.

In 2017, the National MP had weight loss surgery. Over the course of 2018, she talked openly about it, beaming on the covers of women’s magazines and speaking to morning radio hosts with pragmatism and honesty. I am uncomfortable with the way our culture celebrates weight loss as the ultimate achievement but grateful for the shortcut to acceptance she has helped pave with Women’s Weekly covers.

It is not that I feel absolved of my accountability for my body but instead recognise the size of the force that I am up against.

In the weeks leading up to surgery, I read the folder of pamphlets given to me by my surgeon. I did three weeks of a liquid diet that was designed to shrink my liver. I latched onto this anatomical necessity like a clue in a murder mystery game that revealed how the deed was done. The surgery is performed laparoscopically. A smaller liver makes access to the stomach easier and surgery shorter. I became painfully aware that I had no real concept of how my organs work, what they look like or how they’re arranged.

I was an awful person to live with before surgery and tried to articulate why to friends. "I feel brittle" I said, as if years of anguish about my weight was leaking out of me and hardening near the surface. I felt as if you could tap my breast bone and I would crack. I worried that it was not the right decision. I told my brother that it was a real possibility that my soul was made up of three parts Nigella Lawson and one part handmade pasta. I started to panic about the cultural significance of food in our lives and what I was excluding myself from.

I returned to the science.

The overwhelming opinion of public health professionals is that obesity is a health crisis that cannot be solved through self-discipline and restriction. In an interview with Radio NZ, bariatric surgeon, Dr Andrew Jenkins, explained it using an anchor metaphor. We all have weight anchors he says, and "you can sort of drift up and down around this weight anchor for a little while, but you can’t get too far away from it, it will actually pull you back towards your weight anchor".

Boyd Swinburn is the Professor of Population Nutrition and Global Health at the University of Auckland and coined the term "obesogenic environment". At the core of the obesity issue is "a set of economic, political, and policy structures that are driving consumption-based growth".

It is in this irony that I found some peace. Many of the same economic and political drivers that reinforce negative body image for the sake of selling ‘look good, feel good’ solutions, have also created a distortion that commodifies food as a solution to more than satisfying hunger. It is not that I feel absolved of my accountability for my body but instead recognise the size of the force that I am up against.

I surrendered to the science and found something powerful in that surrender. Despite what the science and research tells us and what health advocates fight for every day, we still live in a society that shames and blames overweight people. I will still encounter people who will make a judgment call about my decision to have surgery. People who consider it the easy way out. People who will counter my honesty about my unhappiness about my weight with calls to fight harder against the forces that made me feel that way. If you’re doing mental gymnastics reading this, summoning forth all the arguments and insults, please know I am the Simone Biles of this sport and there is nothing you could say to me that I haven’t already said to myself.

I am still reticent about ascribing happiness to weight loss. Life is still hard at times and weight loss isn’t a cure all. But slowly and surely, the albatross around my neck is unfurling.

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History for the Masses

O&rsquoConnell in her office at the A+E Network. In addition to her job as chief historian for the History Channel, she serves on the board of the Thomas Jefferson Foundation at Monticello. Gerard Gaskin

O&rsquoConnell has what she describes as a &ldquomissionary attitude&rdquo toward history. And perhaps more important to her than advising on various TV shows is reaching out and instilling an interest in history in the public. &ldquoHistory isn&rsquot being taught to the same extent as it has been that&rsquos not earthshaking news. There&rsquos a gap out there. We work hard to increase awareness of the importance and the fun of learning history.&rdquo

For better or for worse, TV, radio, podcasts and other forms of media have stepped in, and a public historian may gain more traction on America&rsquos psyche than an academic. &ldquoMost Americans were not history majors. They go to parks, museums, they watch TV, listen to the &ldquoHistory Guys&rdquo on the radio. That&rsquos where they pick up history. I like being part of that.&rdquo

An outreach project O&rsquoConnell recently completed, one she considers to be some of her life&rsquos work, was in collaboration with an exhibit at the Library of Congress called &ldquoThe Civil Rights Act: A Long Struggle for Freedom.&rdquo It opened in September and includes audiovisual stations with clips showing the boycotts and protests, as well as hundreds of photographs, drawings, posters, legal briefs and letters. The History Channel donated two short films that O&rsquoConnell and her team produced in coordination with the Library of Congress.

&ldquoThe films really help the visitors contextualize what they&rsquore seeing,&rdquo says Lee Ann Potter, director of educational outreach at the Library of Congress. She explains that one of the benefits of doing an exhibit on events in the not-so-distant past is that there&rsquos a lot of audio and visual material you can use to augment the experience. &ldquoYou know how you hear a song from a particular time and it helps you understand that time? It really speaks to the human involvement.&rdquo

O&rsquoConnell also worked with the Library of Congress on a book to go along with the exhibit. Filled with primary source material, it&rsquos a resource for teachers to help them make the events of the civil rights movement come alive. &ldquoWe were thrilled to work with Libby on this project,&rdquo says Potter. &ldquoShe cares a great deal about providing educators with materials they can use and that students will find interesting.&rdquo


Our History

The Connells began to come together as a group in the Spring of 1984. Mike Connell was in his second year of law school and his brother David in his last semester of college, both at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill. The brothers, David playing bass and Mike guitar, rented a practice space and began working up several of Mike’s songs with a friend, John Schultz playing drums. John was a junior at UNC and was from Raleigh, where the Connell brothers’ home base now was located. The band tried a few singers that Spring before settling on Doug MacMillan, a childhood friend of Schultz’s and a swimmer at East Carolina University.

At the end of the school year, the practice sessions moved to John Schultz’s basement in Raleigh. They played at one spur-of-the-moment party that summer, for no compensation.

As the summer wore on, the members decided to replace John. He went on to become director of independent films, “behind the scenes” documentaries, and music video (including “Get a Gun” for The Connells).

The new drummer was Peele Wimberley, who was playing in a locally-successful Raleigh band, Johnny Quest, that included friends of Mike and David’s. Around the time that Peele was brought in, Mike officially asked Tom Carter to be the band’s manager.

Immediately upon Peele’s joining, the band made great strides. Within a few weeks they played their first real show in September 1984, at the long defunct Cafe Deja Vu in Raleigh. The band all lived in Raleigh now, except Mike, who had returned to Chapel Hill for his final year of law school. David lived in his grandmother’s house in Raleigh. The garage of that house (in which the grandmother did not live) also became the band’s practice space.

Many of the first few shows were at the Cafe Deja Vu and other clubs in the Cameron Village Underground. The underground was so close to the band house that some of them would walk to shows, carrying the equipment. This was fortunate, since the largest vehicle owned by the band members was an aging station wagon.

That fall the band recorded a 3-4 song demo at a studio in Chapel Hill. One of the songs, “Darker Days,” was included on a compilation of North Carolina bands, More Mondo, released by Dolphin Records. Dolphin was owned by the Record Bar retail chain and had released an earlier album on the same theme entitled Mondo Montage.

George Huntley had grown up around the corner from the Connell brothers’ grandmother and had known the boys since childhood. He had played with The Connells at a few parties, opening as a solo act and performing a variety of originals and covers. As 1984 drew to a close, he expressed interest in joining the band. Based on his talents as a guitarist, singer, and songwriter his offer to purchase a keyboard and his VW van, he was added to the lineup. This five-man lineup has remained intact for over a decade.

In March 1985, The Connells recorded another demo tape, this one intended to be of release quality. The tape was produced by Don Dixon and Rob Abernethy (then known as Rod Dash), former bandmates from an early 80s Raleigh band called Arrogance. Recent UNC grad and friend Ed Morgan took the tape to London, where he spent the summer.

Demos

Ed (Morgan) had interned at Dolphin Records and learned something about the music industry. He shopped the tape to several labels, including Demon Records. Demon agreed to pay for an additional studio session to record additional songs to fill out an album, which they would then release in Europe. The band went to a different studio to record additional songs with Steve Gronback and Dave Adams at the helm.

The resulting album was Darker Days. Upon Ed’s return from England, he started Black Park Records to release the album in the United States in Fall of 1985. Operating out of his bedroom, Ed and Tom Carter, who handled booking and legal matters, got some independent distribution for the record and began to book the band on tours throughout the country. Friends made videos for “Seven” and “Hats Off” that recieved some airplay on MTV, which at that time was much more open to low budget independent videos.

Incidentally, the title for “Seven” is a holdover from the early days when none of the songs had titles, just numbers according to when they were worked up. “Take a Bow,” from One Simple Word, was originally “Two,” and “In My Head,” from the UK Darker Days, was “Six.” After “Seven” most songs were given titles when written, except “Elegance,” “If it Crumbles,” and “Try,” from Boylan Heights, which were “New One, Two, and Three.”

Those three songs were recorded in the winter of 1985-86 at a demo session at Fort Apache, a new studio started by some friends in Boston. The lyrics and resulting titles were written during the session. This sitar-laced version of “If it Crumbles” can be heard on the flip side of the Hats Off 12″ single. The only other Connells record released on Black Park. Fort Apache later moved from dicey Roxbury to comfortable Cambridge and has become one of Boston’s best studios. It was here that Fun and Games was recorded.

Most of that winter was taken with touring. The band began to develop followings throughout the Southeast and in Boston, New York, Washington, and Chicago. By this time they had toured the Midwest several times and the West Coast once. Touring was bare bones at that time. Sometimes They would go for weeks without getting a motel room, sleeping in the van or on the floors of kind friends and strangers. It has been suggested that the band’s primary sustanence was tuna fish salad, yogurt, raisin bran, and canned beans. The large cooler that had been given to the band served as their kitchen, table, and bed, bridging the front bucket seats of the van.

Although these were trying time, they were the source of many of the band’s fondest memories. Because the tours were so sparse, they had plenty of time to see the sights and stay with people long enough to get to know them. The highlights of the band’s first trip west were visits to the Grand Canyon and Crater Lake and a week in Chico, California.

Recording and Touring

In the Spring/Summer of 1986, The Connells signed with TVT Records. That summer they recorded Boylan Heights with Mitch Easter (of Lets Active). The album was released in the Fall behind the full force of TVT’s promotion and distribution staff. Another friend made a video for “Scotty’s Lament” that was picked up by MTV, and a more established director taped “Over There.” Around the time of the TVT signing, The Connells also signed with a professional booking agent. This meant that the band could now afford to get a motel room or two while on tour.

Also around this time, Black Park Records licensed its products (except Darker Days) to a new label, Mammoth Records. The other bands in Black Park were The Downsiders, from Chico, California, and A Picture Made, from Pittsburg, Kansas. Ed Morgan and Tom Carter started Black Park, Inc. as a management company, with Tom focusing on The Connells and Ed taking on other acts. They shared an office space in Raleigh with Mammoth.

With the release of Boylan Heights, The Connells became a full-time touring unit. The album performed well on college and alternative radio charts and was on a number of critics’ best-of-the-year lists.

The rest of the history is pretty well documented and dates gets fuzzy. In 1990 Ed Morgan made an easy transition into full-time manager. Sometime that year or the next Steve Potak began touring with the band and playing keyboards. Eventually he became an official member.

European Success

In 1995 TVT licensed Ring to Intercord Records in Germany. The song 󈬺-75” became a hit in Germany and spread throughout Europe. It reached number one on the sales charts in several countries and went gold or platinum in a few more. The band spent a good part of that year touring throughout Europe. ** Ring was produced by Lou Giordano and The Connells with Tim Harper assisting.

On April 12, 1996, George Huntley released his first solo record, Brainjunk. The song freeman was originally recorded during the Ring sessions.

After an initial tour of Europe the band came back to the states for a rest and to begin writing new songs for the follow up to Ring. Weird Food and Devastation was released in 1996. Weird Food was produced by The Connells and Tim Harper. The title was based on a comment that Steve made about taking pictures of “weird food and devastation” while on tour in Europe. “Fifth Fret” and “Maybe” were released as singles.


Trial by push notification

The trial of the man accused of Grace Millane&rsquos murder is unlike any other in New Zealand history, recounted in micro-beats, each one tweeted and push-notified. Anna Connell asks what it&rsquos doing to justice.

It was a story that horrified New Zealand. In December last year, the news of the death of Grace Millane, a young woman and visitor to our country, left us shell-shocked. Now we, along with Millane&rsquos family and friends, are processing the gruesome details of what is said to have happened as the trial of the man accused of killing her plays out in a very public way.

I have deliberately chosen not to seek out the trial coverage. It feels invasive and I&rsquove struggled to see the public good in the level of detail being reported. I&rsquove also been open to hearing arguments about why there might be some good in it.

Justice needs to be seen to be done. That is the fundamentally important role of the media within our justice system. The principle of open justice is one we should cling to and protect. Just as the fourth estate has a vital role to play in shining a light on the executive and legislative branches of government, it has the same role to play with the judiciary.

There&rsquos also an argument that&rsquos been put forward about the level of detail being important in order for us to understand what is said to have happened. I have some sympathy for this argument. Why should we get to shy away from these accounts of events?

The issue for me ultimately lies in the way the trial coverage is being serialised, like an awful soap opera or true crime podcast. It&rsquos not that the reporting is bad or beyond the realms of what is required to serve the principle of open justice. It&rsquos that it feels as if it&rsquos being pushed and packaged using every available technique in the media arsenal. The distribution of every new element as a separate piece of the digital news cycle is for me colouring the trial as much as the detail itself.

Snippets of CCTV footage shown in court has also been available for the public to watch on news sites. &ldquoGrace&rsquos last moments,&rdquo blare the hourly headlines. To what end? What is the public good being served here? I&rsquove been told there&rsquos a lot that&rsquos not being reported &ndash but what is being live blogged, live tweeted and circulated in frequent bulletins and push notifications is too much.

We place an enormous faith in the responsibility of a jury: to extricate themselves from the world around them to focus on the facts and to deliver a verdict.

It sometimes feels an idea suspended in time. A time before push notifications and smartphones. A time before information could fly around the world with the touch of key. The judge can only ask the jury to avoid media and social media and the justice minister can only but plead with international media to observe our court&rsquos rules.

Justice is an institution that is far more than the buildings, people and processes involved. It&rsquos a noble idea and a set of principles. It is foundational, and it is, to a certain extent designed to be conducted in a vacuum, free of societal and political pressure. How does that work now when the pressure being applied is relentless and so liquid that it can seep in through the cracks? Is it an idea that&rsquos too delicate to survive in this era? Is there some responsibility media need to take around the nature of its coverage? You can continue to ensure justice is seen to be done &ndash but also that justice is able to be served.

Court reporting is a demanding and gruelling job. The pressures modern media face are also relentless and most of the time I understand that being first, fast and frequent is just the economics of the business these days. The problem is that both justice and media are vital institutions that have to coexist harmoniously, and it currently feels as if the pressure being placed on one of those institutions is contributing to the erosion of the other.

We, the public, might find it difficult to hear and see this trial play out the way it is. We might be weary from the rapid-fire notifications and forensic detail popping up without warning on our phones. We might be right about it being gratuitous and bemoan the news media, but we&rsquoll endure. Will justice?

Independent journalism takes time, money and hard work to produce. We rely on donations to fund our work. If you can help, donate to The Spinoff Members.

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O'CONNELL, DANIEL

Irish statesman b. Carhen, Cahirciveen, Co. Kerry, Aug. 6, 1775 d. Genoa, Italy, May 15, 1847. O'Connell was the eldest son of Morgan (1739 – 1809) and Catherine (O'Mullane) O'Connell. The O'Connells farmed and traded in Kerry, where their ancestors had held military and church offices before the wholesale confiscation of Irish land by Oliver Cromwell. On the advice of an uncle, Count Daniel Charles O'Connell (1745 – 1833), a distinguished French general, Daniel was sent for education to the Austrian Netherlands — first to the English College at St. Omer (1791) and, the following year, to the Douay English College. Early in 1793, the French overran this area and O'Connell went to London, where he studied law until 1797 he was called to the Irish bar in 1798. In 1802 he married his cousin Mary, daughter of Dr. Thomas O'Connell of Tralee.

Emancipation Advocate. O'Connell had been an able student. His diary reveals that he had grasped quite clearly the idea of the English common law, and particularly the concept of the rights of the subject. He was one of the first Catholic lawyers permitted to practice in Ireland after the first anti-Catholic penal laws were modified. O'Connell, one day to be called "the Liberator," was quickly drawn toward the defense of his coreligionists whose political ambitions were being frustrated by the refusal of emancipation. In 1797 he had been associated with the revolutionary society of United Irishmen and also had joined the volunteer artillery corps of the Dublin lawyers. Yet he took no part in the rebellion of 1798. From 1799 for at least ten years he was a freemason — the Irish bishops did not implement papal condemnations of freemasonry until much later. O'Connell was instrumental in securing the reelection as grand master of Richard Hely-Hutchinson, Lord Donoughmore (1756 – 1825), a man whose services in the cause of Catholic emancipation he greatly admired. O'Connell probably ended his connection with the freemasons before 1824, and apparently on the advice of Abp. John troy (1739 – 1823).

A highly successful barrister who was earning nearly £ 8,000 a year by the late 1820s, he was particularly effective in cross-examination, and in defense. His aggressive technique gave courage to Catholics long exploited legally by the Protestant ascendancy. But his method, as in the John Magee case (1814), while it weakened the reputation of opponents, was not always fully effective the loss of one of his cases could entail the imposition of heavy punishments on his clients. Magee, for example, was imprisoned and fined for publishing criminal libels against the government.

As early as 1800 O'Connell had spoken at a meeting of Dublin Catholics in opposition to the legislative union with Great Britain his position was contrary to the views of many of the bishops and upperclass laymen. During his 30-year career as a lawyer he gave much time to the successive Catholic organizations that attempted to secure political and social equality. Until 1812 the most important of these was the Irish Catholic Committee on which O'Connell replaced John Keogh (1740 – 1817) in the year (1807) when the policy of petitioning Parliament for the abrogation of the penal laws was again taken up systematically. This committee was suppressed by the government in 1812 and was succeeded by the Irish Catholic Board, of which O'Connell was also made a member. In 1813 English members of Parliament, who were pro-Catholic and who believed emancipation could be secured, introduced relief measures. These empowered the government by arrangement with the Holy See to exercise a veto on nominees to bishoprics in Great Britain and Ireland. The proposal was acceptable to the papal secretary of Propaganda G. B. (later Cardinal) Quarantotti, but the bill was abandoned because of the opposition of Bp. John Milner (1752 – 1826) and of O'Connell, whose views were those of the majority of the board. O'Connell's objection was that if the veto power was thus conceded, the clergy would appear to be civil servants, and in that role would forfeit the people's confidence. For this same reason O'Connell later rejected several relief bills introduced by Henry Grattan (1746 – 1820). Furthermore, O'Connell had hopes that if Grattan's friends, the Whigs, failed in their purpose, he could secure it through pro-Catholic Tories such as William Conyngham Plunket (1764 – 1854). For these reasons, also, he avoided committing himself on the subject of parliamentary reform. This issue had become associated with the Whig opposition to the Tory government of Robert Banks Jenkinson, second Earl of Liverpool (1770 – 1828). At this point of history, however, the pro-Catholic Tories were too weak to be truly effective and, accordingly, on April 25, 1823, O'Connell and Richard Lalor Sheil (1791 – 1851) started the Catholic Association, which charged membership dues of one shilling a year. Within 12 months O'Connell had gained a nationwide support, which had been effectively organized by the diocesan clergy and by the Catholic professional classes.

Alarmed at this development, the government introduced an act to suppress all such societies (1825). O'Connell went to London to promote a Catholic petition he was persuaded by Plunket and Sir Francis Burdett (1770 – 1844) to accept a relief bill balanced by provisions for state payment of Catholic clergy and for disfranchisement of 40-shilling freeholders. Despite support by a majority of government ministers in the House of Commons, the proposal was defeated in the House of Lords, a vote largely influenced by a speech of the prime minister Lord Liverpool. In July of the same year, O'Connell organized the New Catholic Association, which in the general election of 1826 achieved spectacular successes and which ended the monopoly of political control of the freeholders in Waterford, Louth, and Monaghan. The government now began to fear that O'Connell would make it impossible for them to win Irish elections.

It was in this atmosphere that Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington (1769 – 1852), who succeeded as

prime minister in 1828, now was obliged to give way on the emancipation issue, for O'Connell had himself defeated the government supporter, William Vesey-Fitz Gerald (1783 – 1843), at a by-election for Co. Clare. Since Wellington was in power, the Irish Catholic Association had decided to oppose the reelection of any member accepting office from the government. Although Vesey-Fitz Gerald had been favorable to Catholic emancipation, his defeat made it clear that the government risked losing supporters, and that it dare not risk a general election. Such an election in Ireland would almost certainly result in the return of a solid bloc of pro-Catholics hostile to the government's policy.

O'Connell's victory, by a vote of 2057 to 982, was regarded as the death knell of landlord control of freeholders' votes. The clergy had utilized every influence in stimulating their people to believe that the issue was essentially a religious one. Thus, to Wellington, emancipation became a necessary concession in a final effort to ensure "that the Irish nobility and gentry would recover their lost influence, the just influence of property." It was the great merit of O'Connell that his efforts helped to build for the Irish masses the growing power that led to eventual control of their elected representatives. The passage of the act of Catholic emancipation, however, was accompanied by the statutory abolition both of the Catholic Association and of the voting rights of the 40-shilling freeholders (1829). Only those Catholics who would take an oath of allegiance to the British king, and thereby deny the temporal power of the pope in the United Kingdom, might thus secure legal exemption from the penal laws. Future members of religious orders need not expect such protection. Even O'Connell himself, without reelection, could not take his seat in Parliament unless he first subscribed to the anti-Catholic oath and declaration made applicable to all members before the Clare election. That no one dared oppose his reelection was some indication that the center of political gravity in Ireland had changed permanently.

Further Political Struggles. For some years after 1829, O'Connell's connections with Catholic issues were peripheral. His attempt to organize a nondenominational movement to repeal the union of the British and Irish parliaments was unsuccessful. He was feared by the dominant Protestant ascendancy, which in any case was not prepared to share its power. Determined to break that power, O'Connell appealed to the parliamentary reformers and to the democracy. In November 1830, Wellington, convinced that he could no longer prevent reform, retired and was succeeded as prime minister by Charles Grey (Viscount Howick and Earl Grey, 1764 – 1845). With O'Connell's support, this Whig leader secured the passage of the great reform act of 1832, which abolished many unrepresentative boroughs and gave to the upper middle class some share in political power. The Irish act (1833), which maintained many of the unrepresentative bulwarks of Protestant ascendancy, was less satisfactory. Further, social equality was still denied to farming Catholics who now began to refuse to pay tithes to Protestant clergy. The result was that a new form of agrarian revolt, partly countenanced by the Catholic clergy, became common. After 1834, under Grey's successor, William Lamb, Viscount Melbourne (1779 – 1848), O'Connell made more progress in securing "justice for Ireland" and in particular for the Catholics. A reform administration in Dublin, one particularly influential among the police, abandoned the habit of equating loyalists and Protestants. Catholics were slowly admitted to government offices, but legislative reforms did not go beyond converting tithes into a rent charge upon lands (1838), and abolishing the more indefensible parliamentary boroughs (1840). Meanwhile, since 1830 the existence of a nondenominational system of elementary education was causing increased Catholic and Protestant resentment particularly on the part of Abp. John machale] (1791 – 1881) of Tuam his opposition led him to support O'Connell who had revived the repeal of the union question in the Precursor Society in 1838. O'Connell convinced MacHale that the Repeal Association, established in 1839, would prevent the Tory government of Sir Robert Peel (1788 – 1850), Melbourne's successor (1841), from reestablishing Protestant ascendancy, or, at the least, from permanently obstructing further Catholic emancipation. With renewed clerical support in most parts of the country (Abp. Daniel murray of Dublin almost alone held aloof) O'Connell organized an enthusiastic national following. Despite his confident predictions of success for this great moral movement in 1843, Peel secured O'Connell's imprisonment for seditious conspiracy (June 30, 1844). He was released, after a successful appeal, three months later. Catholic Ireland treated this event as an occasion for spiritual rejoicing even Archbishop Murray took part by sanctioning a Te Deum. Meanwhile, Peel had endeavored to divert Catholics from the Repeal Association by supporting a more moderate policy, which featured the state endowment of nondenominational higher colleges and a substantially increased subsidization of St. Patrick's of Maynooth. Through a bequests act, Peel also offered improved facilities for Catholic charities. A simultaneous approach was made to Rome to discourage Irish ecclesiastical involvement in politics. This attempt boomeranged when MacHale insisted on the danger to Catholicism from the colleges and bequests bills. Unfairly, O'Connell argued that the bequests law would be used to bar charities to religious orders. Rome ultimately condemned the legislation for colleges but not the bequests act. Immediately afterward, O'Connell was able to influence the clergy against that more militant group in the Repeal Association, the Young Irelanders, who were opposed to a renewed Irish alliance with the Whigs who had returned to power under Prime Minister Lord John Russell in June 1846. Rather than deny the right to resort to force in any extremity, the Young Irelanders left the Repeal Association.

Thereafter O'Connell desired to persuade the state to take measures to counteract the potato blight, which had first appeared in the autumn of the preceding year. The attempt was unsuccessful the Whig government proved incapable of arresting the catastrophe, now known as the "Great Famine." Within ten years, the resultant fever, starvation, and emigration reduced by 25 percent the population of Ireland, which had once been more than eight million.

After O'Connell's death from a sudden cerebral illness, suffered at Genoa while he was on a pilgrimage to Rome, his son Daniel was received by Pope Pius IX. Under that pope's auspices a two-day funeral oration for O'Connell was delivered by Gioacchino ventura diraulica (1792 – 1861). The speech glorified the union of religion and liberty.

O'Connell's religious convictions, apparently weakened in his youth, had been reinforced during his maturity, and were quite strong in his last years. Those years were, however, somewhat darkened by what seems to have been almost an obsession with the possibility of his eternal damnation.

O'Connell's Significance. This Irish statesman was the greatest single influence in the emergence of Irish political nationalism. He linked the constitutional movement of Grattan and of the 18th-century Protestant patriots to the emancipated Catholics. In his appeal to the masses he was closer to Theobald Wolfe Tone (1763 – 98) and to the United Irishmen than to Grattan, though in his mature years he opposed both the use of physical force and of revolutionary methods. His substitution of the clergy for the landlords as the local leaders of the people strengthened their mutual ties even after clerical interference at the end of the career of Parnell had weakened the Church's relations with the nationalists. A friend to Catholic liberal Europe and a forceful supporter of the advocates of Negro emancipation in America, O'Connell's influence on Irish nationalism helped to shape the 20th-century Republic of Ireland.

Bibliography: r. d. edwards, "The Contribution of Young Ireland to the Development of the National Idea," in Essays Presented to T. Ua Donnchadha, ed. s. pender (Cork 1947). a. houston, ed., D. O'Connell: His Early Life, and Journal, 1795 to 1802 (London 1906). d. o'connell, A Memoir on Ireland, Native and Saxon (Dublin 1843 2d ed. 1844). j. o'connell, ed., Life and Speeches of D. O'Connell, 2 v. (Dublin 1846), by his son. w. j. fitzpatrick, ed., Correspondence of D. O'Connell, 2 v. (London 1888). O'Connell MSS in National Library of Ireland, and University College Dublin. j. a. reynolds, The Catholic Emancipation Crisis in Ireland, 1823 – 1829 (New Haven 1954). j. f. broderick, The Holy See and the Irish Movement for the Repeal of the Union with England, 1829 – 1847 (Rome 1951). c. g. duffy, Young Ireland, 1840 – 1849, 2 v. (2d ed. Dublin 1884 – 87). g. s. lefevre, Peel and O'Connell, a Review of Irish Policy (London 1887).


Jaxwvei4dner

Manchester City History : Manchester City Reach Carabao Final But History Favors Tottenham - Mark's, after an initiative by arthur connell (the rector of st mark's church) and his daughter, anna connell.. The cotton mills employed less in the city as the century wore on, by 1840 only 18% of the work force worked in cotton manufacture. A comprehensive history of manchester city football club. 1966 city are promoted as champions of division two, under the management team of joe mercer and malcolm allison. The club was formed in 1880, under the name of st. Mark's, after an initiative by arthur connell (the rector of st mark's church) and his daughter, anna connell.

Mark's (west gorton), they became ardwick association football club in 1887 and manchester city in 1894. History of manchester city f.c. Manchester city goalkeepers history hailed as perhaps the best keeper ever to manchester city, bert trautmann was really attacked by allies regardless. Manchester, city and metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of greater manchester urban county, northwestern england. View manchester city fc statistics from previous seasons, including league position and top goalscorer, on the official website of the premier league.

/>A Brief History Of Real Madrid Vs Manchester City Managing Madrid from cdn.vox-cdn.com This summer, the argentine great will be leaving manchester city, where he's left an indelible impact and secured his legacy. Most of the city, including the historic core, is in the historic county of lancashire, but it includes an area south of the river mersey in the historic county of cheshire. Includes details of every match ever played, and every player, manager, chairman, and stadium in the club's history, as well as a timeline, video archive and bibliography. The history of manchester city football club, a professional football club based in manchester, england, dates back to the club's formation in 1880 by members of st. It's a daunting task, but one made possible by the creation of locomotives in the preceding decades. Manchester city have won four premier league titles, six fa cups, seven football league cups, six division two titles, two division one titles, one football league championship title, one european cup winners cup, one division two playoff winners trophy and, if you consider the fa community shield as a trophy, five. This officially endorsed book, with the foreword written by manager pep guardiola, traces the club's history from its formation in 1880, the trials and tribulation. A comprehensive history of manchester city football club.

Manchester city goalkeepers history hailed as perhaps the best keeper ever to manchester city, bert trautmann was really attacked by allies regardless.

The new kit and training range are now available! The manchester city online shop has a great range of new crested products, with new products arriving each day. It was just far too serious. History of manchester city f.c. How many trophies have man city won in total/history? We begin with the club's location, home ground, and founding story. The club was formed in 1880, under the name of st. The history of manchester city football club, a professional football club based in manchester, england, dates back to the club's formation in 1880 by members of st. Founded in 1880 as st. 'our unseen history:' the official 125th anniversary book of manchester city is now on sale! Mark's (west gorton), they became ardwick association football club in 1887 and manchester city in 1894. Few clubs can boast a story as dramatic and fascinating as manchester city. Manchester city football club is an english football club based in manchester that competes in the premier league, the top flight of english football.

For the city itself, see manchester. Manchester became the commercial centre of the industry, its clearing house. Mark's church of england, west gorton, manchester, founded the football club that would become known as manchester city, for largely humanitarian purposes. Most of the city, including the historic core, is in the historic county of lancashire, but it includes an area south of the river mersey in the historic county of cheshire. The history of manchester city football club, a professional football club based in manchester, england, dates back to the club's formation in 1880 by members of st.

Manchester City F C Wikipedia from upload.wikimedia.org Few clubs can boast a story as dramatic and fascinating as manchester city. 'our unseen history:' the official 125th anniversary book of manchester city is now on sale! He filled in as a paratrooper in the luftwaffe during the subsequent world war, and was caught by the british towards the finish of the war. View manchester city fc statistics from previous seasons, including league position and top goalscorer, on the official website of the premier league. We begin with the club's location, home ground, and founding story. Includes details of every match ever played, and every player, manager, chairman, and stadium in the club's history, as well as a timeline, video archive and bibliography. Mark's (west gorton), it became ardwick association football club in 1887 and manchester city in 1894. The history of manchester city football club, a professional football club based in manchester, england, dates back to the club's formation in 1880 by members of st.

Founded in 1880 as st.

1966 city are promoted as champions of division two, under the management team of joe mercer and malcolm allison. He filled in as a paratrooper in the luftwaffe during the subsequent world war, and was caught by the british towards the finish of the war. The official illustrated history celebrates the illustrious history and modern dominance of one of english football's most storied teams. 1965 a new club badge is developed in 1965, based around the central part of the city of manchester coat of arms. The cotton mills employed less in the city as the century wore on, by 1840 only 18% of the work force worked in cotton manufacture. This officially endorsed book, with the foreword written by manager pep guardiola, traces the club's history from its formation in 1880, the trials and tribulation. Manchester city football club (nicknamed the blues or the citizens is a premier league football club in manchester, england. The new kit and training range are now available! The character of manchester changed. We begin with the club's location, home ground, and founding story. The club was formed in 1880, under the name of st. The manchester city online shop has a great range of new crested products, with new products arriving each day. Founded in 1880 as st.

Mark's, after an initiative by arthur connell (the rector of st mark's church) and his daughter, anna connell. Manchester became the commercial centre of the industry, its clearing house. The official illustrated history celebrates the illustrious history and modern dominance of one of english football's most storied teams. Few clubs can boast a story as dramatic and fascinating as manchester city. The cotton mills employed less in the city as the century wore on, by 1840 only 18% of the work force worked in cotton manufacture.

Man City S Flimsy Title Defences What Does History Tell Us from images2.minutemediacdn.com The cotton mills employed less in the city as the century wore on, by 1840 only 18% of the work force worked in cotton manufacture. View manchester city fc statistics from previous seasons, including league position and top goalscorer, on the official website of the premier league. The club was formed in 1880, under the name of st. Manchester city have won four premier league titles, six fa cups, seven football league cups, six division two titles, two division one titles, one football league championship title, one european cup winners cup, one division two playoff winners trophy and, if you consider the fa community shield as a trophy, five. Manchester city football club is an english football club based in manchester that competes in the premier league, the top flight of english football. History of manchester city f.c. The official illustrated history celebrates the illustrious history and modern dominance of one of english football's most storied teams. Sergio agüero's place in premier league and manchester city history.

The official illustrated history celebrates the illustrious history and modern dominance of one of english football's most storied teams.

1966 city are promoted as champions of division two, under the management team of joe mercer and malcolm allison. The club was formed in 1880, under the name of st. The cotton mills employed less in the city as the century wore on, by 1840 only 18% of the work force worked in cotton manufacture. After calling them self gorton fc and ardwick afc for shorter periods, they would change their name to manchester city in 1894. We begin with the club's location, home ground, and founding story. We discuss some of manchester city football club's history in this video. Mark's church of england in west gorton. Manchester city goalkeepers history hailed as perhaps the best keeper ever to manchester city, bert trautmann was really attacked by allies regardless. The new kit and training range are now available! Mark's, after an initiative by arthur connell (the rector of st mark's church) and his daughter, anna connell. The history of manchester city football club, a professional football club based in manchester, england, dates back to the club's formation in 1880 by members of st. How many trophies have man city won in total/history? Manchester city football club is an english football club based in manchester that competes in the premier league, the top flight of english football.

Source: static.standard.co.uk

1966 city are promoted as champions of division two, under the management team of joe mercer and malcolm allison. This summer, the argentine great will be leaving manchester city, where he's left an indelible impact and secured his legacy. Manchester city football club (nicknamed the blues or the citizens is a premier league football club in manchester, england. It's a daunting task, but one made possible by the creation of locomotives in the preceding decades. Manchester city goalkeepers history hailed as perhaps the best keeper ever to manchester city, bert trautmann was really attacked by allies regardless.

The history of manchester city football club, a professional football club based in manchester, england, dates back to the club's formation in 1880 by members of st. Terrible refereeing plays part in borussia dortmund defeat at city Most of the city, including the historic core, is in the historic county of lancashire, but it includes an area south of the river mersey in the historic county of cheshire. Manchester city goalkeepers history hailed as perhaps the best keeper ever to manchester city, bert trautmann was really attacked by allies regardless. This summer, the argentine great will be leaving manchester city, where he's left an indelible impact and secured his legacy.

Source: sportslogohistory.com

The character of manchester changed. Manchester city football club is an english football club based in manchester that competes in the premier league, the top flight of english football. Manchester city have won four premier league titles, six fa cups, seven football league cups, six division two titles, two division one titles, one football league championship title, one european cup winners cup, one division two playoff winners trophy and, if you consider the fa community shield as a trophy, five. Terrible refereeing plays part in borussia dortmund defeat at city The new kit and training range are now available!

Source: www.thenationalnews.com

Most of the city, including the historic core, is in the historic county of lancashire, but it includes an area south of the river mersey in the historic county of cheshire. Mark's church of england in west gorton. A comprehensive history of manchester city football club. The character of manchester changed. Terrible refereeing plays part in borussia dortmund defeat at city

The character of manchester changed. We discuss some of manchester city football club's history in this video. After calling them self gorton fc and ardwick afc for shorter periods, they would change their name to manchester city in 1894. Founded in 1880 as st. Founded in 1880 as st.

Source: spartacus-educational.com

Sergio agüero's place in premier league and manchester city history. Most of the city, including the historic core, is in the historic county of lancashire, but it includes an area south of the river mersey in the historic county of cheshire. Founded in 1880 as st. This summer, the argentine great will be leaving manchester city, where he's left an indelible impact and secured his legacy. 'our unseen history:' the official 125th anniversary book of manchester city is now on sale!

The history of manchester city football club, a professional football club based in manchester, england, dates back to the club's formation in 1880 by members of st. The cotton mills employed less in the city as the century wore on, by 1840 only 18% of the work force worked in cotton manufacture. Mark's (west gorton), it became ardwick association football club in 1887 and manchester city in 1894. Mark's church of england in west gorton. It's a daunting task, but one made possible by the creation of locomotives in the preceding decades.

The cotton mills employed less in the city as the century wore on, by 1840 only 18% of the work force worked in cotton manufacture. Few clubs can boast a story as dramatic and fascinating as manchester city. Mark's church of england in west gorton. 1965 a new club badge is developed in 1965, based around the central part of the city of manchester coat of arms. Founded in 1880 as st.

Source: images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com

Sergio agüero's place in premier league and manchester city history. Mark's (west gorton), they became ardwick association football club in 1887 and manchester city in 1894. 'our unseen history:' the official 125th anniversary book of manchester city is now on sale! The character of manchester changed. Manchester city dominated the possession early on and went ahead in the 19th minute after dortmund gave the ball away in their half.


Of Arms and Men: A History of War, Weapons, and Aggression

Of Arms and Men is better in its&apos parts than as a whole. The individual chapters are informative and usually carry some new, inventive argument. O&aposConnell makes three arguments, which vaguely fit together. Prior to 1400 AD the history weaponry was cyclical and generally controlled by cultural factors. After that time period, weapons quickly developed, but that development was driven by private inventors, and usually not by the military which tended to be very conservative towards new ideas. Curr Of Arms and Men is better in its' parts than as a whole. The individual chapters are informative and usually carry some new, inventive argument. O'Connell makes three arguments, which vaguely fit together. Prior to 1400 AD the history weaponry was cyclical and generally controlled by cultural factors. After that time period, weapons quickly developed, but that development was driven by private inventors, and usually not by the military which tended to be very conservative towards new ideas. Currently, our nuclear arsenals make most wars unfightable and unwinnable, but that the history of weapons shows that societies can enforce arms control when they want.

What's missing (from O'Connell at least) is any sort of strongly worded argument that moves from a circular development cycle to upward spiral of weapons technology.

I feel like I'm knocking the book too much. It's a very good read, and there are some very valuable pieces to it.

O'Connell argues that the Roman style of combat, with short swords, face-to-face, brought a new level of violence to combat. The gladius, made as much for hacking as piercing, made hideous wounds (especially to those who had before only seen spear and arrow wounds). What I had never considered is that the sensation of violence is not a steady measure through human experience, but has its' own ups and downs.

Why do humans make war? Is it genetically pre-determined? What lessons of early warfare can we apply to present day conditions?
Robert O&aposConnell attempts to answer these and many other questions

0&apos Connell argues that man&aposs creation of weapons is biologically defensible. Most animals developed some form of self-defense mechanism, be it fangs, claws or, in the case of crustaceans, body armor. Intraspecies combat is characterized by symmetrically balanced weaponry and battle follows a specific set Why do humans make war? Is it genetically pre-determined? What lessons of early warfare can we apply to present day conditions?
Robert O'Connell attempts to answer these and many other questions

0' Connell argues that man's creation of weapons is biologically defensible. Most animals developed some form of self-defense mechanism, be it fangs, claws or, in the case of crustaceans, body armor. Intraspecies combat is characterized by symmetrically balanced weaponry and battle follows a specific set of rules. Man's history of weaponry is an attempt to overcome symmetry in battle: the ever-increasing search for the ultimate, or better weapon which will provide the edge in combat. Deterrence itself has biological parallels in the increased ritualization of battle and the insertion of bluff, i.e. animals who try to appear larger than life when faced with aggression. This parallels a country's desire to appear (if not actually be) stronger than the opponent to prevent attack, at least in theory.

War, itself, began some 7000-9000 years ago largely as a result of changes in the nomadic lifestyle, the development of agriculture and a more village-oriented society. O'Connell postulates that about this time the concept of property arose as people had more food than they needed. Control implied ownership. Thus politics and property became the keys to societal conflict.

Ironically many of the civilizations we now admire for their cultural achievements (Greece, Rome, etc.) were acclaimed by their contemporaries for their war-making abilities. It was not until the 17th century that dominance by one state over another was achieved by some means other than war (economics and commercial trade.) Despite O'Connell's overemphasis on biological comparisons, the book makes intriguing parallels between ancient war and that of today the desire for bigger and better weapons for example. Ptolemy V built a gargantuan warship which totally outclassed anything at the time. It was 450 feet in length, had a 57 foot beam, carried 4000 oarsmen, 400 deckhands, and 2800 marines but was worthless militarily. It reminds one of the nuclear airplane of the 50's or perhaps the Stealth bomber.

Another interesting parallel is the 1139 Edict of the 2nd Ecumenical Lateran Council which outlawed the use of the crossbow, (except in its use against Muslims, of course,) perhaps the first attempt at arms control. The crossbow was an extremely effective weapon, strong enough to penetrate the armor of a mounted knight. As it was relatively inexpensive, it enabled the lowly foot soldier to destroy the mounted aristocracy threatening the power structure supported by the church. The current attempts to prevent small nations from obtaining nuclear weapons raises similar issues.

I have sought after this book for some time. After reading O&aposConnell&aposs &aposGhosts of Cannae&apos a few years ago, I decided this was an author who warranted further reading. Cannae was written with great flair and alacrity while being historically informatively and just a pleasurable read, in short what all history books should aspire to.

Naturally I was disappointed to see this author who I quickly developed admiration for had only 1 other writing credit to his name, and since &aposOf Arms and Men&apos had be I have sought after this book for some time. After reading O'Connell's 'Ghosts of Cannae' a few years ago, I decided this was an author who warranted further reading. Cannae was written with great flair and alacrity while being historically informatively and just a pleasurable read, in short what all history books should aspire to.

Naturally I was disappointed to see this author who I quickly developed admiration for had only 1 other writing credit to his name, and since 'Of Arms and Men' had been written 20+ years before Cannae, I questioned whether it was even the same author.

Still I dutifully added it to my 'Books to Read' list and there it remained for years as I searched through various used book store history sections in vain. While not something I just had to have, a broad overview of the history of arms innovation certainly appealed to me.

Then last summer my wife and I were vacationing in NYC and I found myself in the legendary labyrinth of used books that is The Strand. On this one single journey I managed to secure quite a few books that had been languishing on my list for years. Before we left I decided to make my usual rote trip to the military history section, and decided at that moment that I was tired of making this trip to search for one book which I wasn't certain I'd ever find. I decided as I wandered to the section that afterwards I'd remove Of Arms from my list.

And there it was. I was ecstatic, moreso from the discovery than actual excitement for the book. I ran to find my wife like a young child, squealing look what I found!

So how was the actual book?

Ehhh, pretty good. It's certainly not squeel worthy, and I wouldn't beat your brains out trying to find it. It's closer to a technical manual than an engaging history book, and it's clear that O'Connell made huge strides in his prose between this and Cannae. O'Connell was not a writer by trade but a military policy analyst and it reads as such.

That being said, if the subject is interesting to you at all then it is certainly worth a read. While the prose may not be exciting or griping, it is exhaustive and I feel much more educated on both the history of arms and how they have effected political history. The book gets stronger as it goes along, and ends with a stirring segment about the realities of nuclear disarmament and future arms control. My main complaint is that this book would have been greatly served by more graphics and diagrams depicting the weapons he is describing. I often had to put the book down and go to Wikipedia just to get a visual of a specific weapon. . more


A bunch of people seem to have taken the Green MP's comments about diversity on boards very personally, when the research suggests there's nothing controversial about them at all, writes Anna Connell.

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