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Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus

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Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus, (died 268), Roman general who, by setting himself up as an independent emperor in Gaul about 258–268 became a rival to the emperor Gallienus.

Postumus and another general, Silvanus, stayed behind in Colonia (Cologne) with Gallienus’ son Saloninus after the emperor had left the Rhine River for the Danube about 258. When Silvanus demanded that all booty be handed back to the treasury and its original owners, the reluctant troops proclaimed Postumus emperor, defeating and killing both Silvanus and Saloninus. Postumus successfully defended the Rhine frontier and withstood Gallienus’ attempts to recover Gaul (265). At the height of his power, he ruled Gaul, Britain, and Spain. Later he took Victorinus (who succeeded him) as his colleague, perhaps as joint emperor. Postumus was killed in a mutiny of the legion of Mogontiacum (now Mainz, Ger.).

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.

Afterwards Postumus declared himself Emperor with the support of his legion in Gaul. His power was uncontested throughout Gaul. He was also recognized as Emperor in much of Britannia. He did not campaign to control Rome, but instead wanted to reform Gaul. He officially made Lutetia the capital in 261 and went on to consolidate power throughout his new empire. He reformed the government and military, to make sure loyalty was to him. Postumus changed the color of aristocracy to blue and also used a platinum laurel wreath as his crown. A new Senate was created, however elections were held and the senators were voted into office. These positions were held for life - unless they resign or are forcefully ousted by a ⅔ vote of confidence from the other senators. He was also the first to really create the idea of an imperial family - his wife was given the title Regina (Empress) and their children were given the title Princeps.

After crushing a major revolt in 268, he went on numerous campaigns to consolidate power. He managed to put down a potential usurper, Laelianus, in 269 and would seek to make sure that his son would become the next Imperator. Postumus notably hired record keepers to record taxes, births, marriages, and elections. As per royal decree, the naming system was permanently altered (May 269) - it simply became a first name and family name.

He also notably allowed other languages and religions to flourish throughout his empire. This was supplanted by his first doctrine in 272 all adult male inhabitants throughout his empire were given citizenship with full voting rights.

His rule was soon troubled by revolters in lower Britannia in 274. He set sail and landed in June 274. His army was victorious at putting down the revolt, however he died at the Battle for Britannia in late July 274. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Marius I.

Life [ edit | edit source ]

Rise to power [ edit | edit source ]

Little is known about the early life of Postumus. He has been claimed as a Batavian ΐ] certainly his coinage honours deities—Hercules Magusanus and Hercules Deusoniensis—who would have been popular among the Batavians. Α] Deusoniensis may refer to the town of Deuso, located in or near Batavian territory and likely to be identified with Diessen Postumus himself has been hypothesized to have been born in Deuso. Β] From these relatively obscure provincial origins, Postumus would have risen through the ranks of the army until he held command of the Roman forces "among the Celts". Γ] What his precise title was is not definitely known, Δ] though he may plausibly have been promoted by the emperor Valerian to the position of imperial legate of Lower Germany. Ώ] Ε] Postumus was evidently in favour at court, and, according to König, was granted an honorary consulship. Ζ]

By 259, Valerian was campaigning in the east against the Persians, while his son and co-emperor Gallienus was preoccupied with the situation on the Danubian frontier. Η] Consequently Gallienus left his son, Saloninus, and military commanders, including Postumus, to protect the Rhine. ⎖] Amid the chaos of an invasion by the Alamanni and Franks, and spurred on by news of the defeat and capture of Valerian, Η] the army in Gaul revolted and proclaimed Postumus emperor. ⎗] ⎘] ⎙]

The trigger was their defeat in 260 [note 1] of a Juthungian army which was returning from Italy laden with prisoners, even though they had been repulsed by Gallienus at Mediolanum. ⎗] Under the command of Postumus and Marcus Simplicinius Genialis, the Roman army crushed the Juthungi, and Postumus proceeded to distribute the captured spoils to the legions he commanded. Ε] Saloninus, on the advice of his praetorian prefect Silvanus (who had coordinated Roman policy in Gaul alongside Postumus), demanded the transfer of the recovered booty to his residence at Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium. ⎖] Postumus assembled his troops and made a show of reluctantly enforcing this command, thus inviting his troops to instead throw off their allegiance to Gallienus. ⎙] The troops accordingly proclaimed Postumus emperor and proceeded to besiege and attack Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, trapping Saloninus and Silvanus. Ε] After breaching the walls of the city, Postumus had Silvanus and Saloninus killed, Ε] ⎙] although his supporters later claimed that it was the native Gauls who were responsible for the murders. ⎚] Later he erected a triumphal arch to celebrate his victory.

Establishment of a Gallic empire [ edit | edit source ]

Postumus was immediately recognized as emperor in Gaul (except perhaps for Narbonensis Ε] ), the two Germanias, ⎚] and Raetia. ⎖] By 261, Britannia, Gallia Narbonensis and Hispania had also acknowledged him as emperor, ⎚] (possibly after an expedition to Britain in the winter of 260/261 ⎛] ). He established his capital in northern Gaul, probably at Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium ⎚] or Augusta Treverorum, ⎜] and then proceeded to set up many of the traditional Roman legislative and executive structures. ⎝] Apart from the position of emperor, he immediately assumed the office of consul alongside a colleague, Honoratianus. ⎞] Like his imperial predecessors, he became the pontifex maximus of the state ⎞] and assumed tribunician power each year. ⎝] He is thought to have established a senate, ⎖] ⎘] perhaps on the basis of the Council of the Three Gauls or provincial councils, ⎟] and a praetorian guard ⎚] (one of whose officers was the future Gallic emperor Victorinus ⎠] ). Reflecting his power base, the chief members of Postumus’ administration appeared to have been of northern Gallic origin, and indeed, the entire administration soon became rapidly Gallicized. ⎡] Both Victorinus and Tetricus, important members of the government, hailed from this region. ⎡]

Postumus represented himself as the restorer of Gaul (Restitutor Galliarum) and the bringer of security to the provinces (Salus Provinciarum) on some of his coins ⎚] prior to 10 December 261, [note 1] he also took the title of Germanicus maximus, a title he earned after successfully defending Gaul against the Germans. ⎖] His principal objective in assuming the purple appeared to be the restoration and defence of the Rhine frontier and the surrounding area, a task that he approached with vigour, earning the admiration of the ancient authors, who declared that he restored the security that the provinces had enjoyed in the past. ⎚] So successful was he in the task of restoring peace and security to the provinces under his direct control that the coins issued by Postumus were of better workmanship and higher precious metal content than coins issued by Gallienus ⎢] his control of the Spanish and British mining regions was presumably crucial in this regard, ⎣] as was his employment of master minters who would have come into Gaul with Gallienus. ⎤] Postumus fought successful campaigns against the Franks and Alamanni in 262 and 263 following his victory over them in 263, he assumed the title Germanicus Maximus, after which his coin-types celebrated peaceful themes such as Felicitas Augusti for some time. ⎥] After having spent much of the last four years pushing the Franks out of Gaul, Postumus then recruited Frankish troops to fight against other Franks, probably dispersed within existing Roman army units. ⎦]

Scholars continue to debate whether Postumus originally intended to dislodge Gallienus from Rome or was content to rule only the western provinces. ⎚] From the beginning of his usurpation, Postumus had made it clear that he had no immediate intentions to make a bid for Rome, that his priority was for Gaul. ⎖] ⎙] Postumus’ powerbase was Gaul and his main responsibility was the defense of the Rhine provinces. If he marched against Gallienus, then he would be exposing his heartland not only to the Germanic tribes but also potentially to any number of usurpers. ⎚] Perhaps he hoped to achieve some official recognition from Gallienus what is clear however, is that Postumus was not overtly separatist and did not revive the 1st-century dream of an independent Galliarum imperium ⎖] (see Julius Sabinus and revolt of the Batavi). The forms, titles and administrative structures of Postumus’ principate remained conventionally Roman. ⎧]

Confrontation with Gallienus [ edit | edit source ]

For four years Gallienus had been too distracted by Germanic invasions and other usurpers in the east to turn his attention to the situation to his north and west. ⎨] This changed in 265 when Gallienus launched a campaign to defeat Postumus. ⎨] ⎩] After some initial success against Postumus, his first attempt failed when Postumus managed to escape from a precarious situation due to the carelessness of Gallienus’ cavalry commander Aureolus, ⎖] leading to Aureolus’ demotion and eventual abandonment of Gallienus in 267. ⎩] ⎪]

A second campaign, led by Gallienus himself, also seemed to have the advantage over Postumus, but while Gallienus was besieging a city in Gaul (perhaps Augusta Treverorum ⎩] ), he was wounded and forced to withdraw. ⎨] ⎫] After his failed attempt at defeating Postumus, Gallienus was occupied with crises in the rest of his empire and did not confront Postumus again. ⎖] Gallienus nevertheless did manage to wrest control of Raetia from Postumus during these years. ⎩]

Final years [ edit | edit source ]

By the end of 265, Postumus’ coin issues were triumphantly commemorating the victory over Gallienus, and the festivities celebrating his quinquennalia continued into the following year. ⎖] Very little troubled the reign of Postumus from 265 to 268 archaeological evidence, such as it is, points to a general return to peace and normalcy. ⎬] In 266, Postumus became consul for the fourth time, taking as his colleague Marcus Piavvonius Victorinus, a Gallic noble who was also a senior military officer his selection to such a high-profile position may be seen as an attempt to broaden Postumus’ base of support. ⎭] The year 268 saw the issuing of the ‘Labours of Hercules’ series of gold coins in honour of Postumus’ favourite god. ⎮] A sudden debasement of the coinage later that year shows that Postumus was facing increasing financial difficulties, due perhaps to a disruption of silver production in the Spanish mines ⎯] or the need to buy off an increasingly discontented army. ⎖]

Such discontent must probably have been due to the army’s frustration with Postumus’ failure to take advantage of a golden opportunity to move against Gallienus in 268. ⎰] Aureolus, the general who was in command of Mediolanum in Gallienus’ interest, rebelled and ultimately declared for Postumus. ⎨] The city of Mediolanum and its north Italian and Raetian hinterland would have been critical to Postumus if he planned to march on Rome. For whatever reason, Postumus failed to support Aureolus, who was besieged by Gallienus. ⎪] ⎱] Before the end of the northern summer in 268, the events at Mediolanum were to see the assassination of Gallienus, the defeat of Aureolus, and the accession of Claudius II. ⎲] It also triggered a sequence of events that would see the end of Postumus’ rule in Gaul.

Fall [ edit | edit source ]

Aureus of Postumus, within a pendant

Postumus assumed his fifth consulship on 1 January, 269, ⎖] but the army in Germania Superior raised a usurper in early 269. ⎖] Laelianus, one of Postumus’ top military leaders and the governor of Germania Superior, was declared emperor in Mogontiacum by the local garrison and surrounding troops (Legio XXII Primigenia). ⎖] ⎳] Although Postumus was able to capture Mogontiacum and kill Laelianus within a few months, he was unable to control his own troops, who wished to put Mogontiacum to the sack. When Postumus tried to restrain them, his men turned on him and killed him. ⎖] ⎪] ⎴]

The mutineers set up Marius, a common soldier, as emperor. Marius held sway for a short while before being overthrown by Victorinus, Postumus’ erstwhile colleague in the consulship and tribune of the praetorian guard. ⎵] In the meantime, Spain was lost to the Gallic Empire. ⎶]


Marcus Cassianus Latinius Postumus was born in Gallia to a family of Batavian origin. He served in the Roman Army and rose to be imperial legate of Germania Inferior, but, after the Roman emperor Valerian's capture by the Persians in 260, he found himself proclaimed emperor by his troops. He crushed the Germanic Juthungi and distributed the spoils of war to his men, securing their loyalty. Postumus then drove Gallienus' loyalists from Gaul and blamed their deaths on a Gallic revolt, and he was recognized as emperor in Gaul, Germania, and Raetia by 261, Britannia, Gallia Narbonensis, and Hispania also acknowledged him as emperor. Postumus established Gallic equivalents of the Roman Senate and the Praetorian Guard, and he Gallicized the entire administration, with the chief members of his organization being northern Gauls. He went on to push the invading Franks out of Gaul, but, in 265, Gallienus launched a campaign to reconquer Gaul. Gallienus reconquered Raetia, but he was assassinated in 268 and succeeded by Claudius Gothicus. Postumus assumed his fifth consulship in 269, but, that same year, his general Laelianus rebelled against him in Germania. Postumus crushed his uprising at Mogontiacum (Mainz), but his troops mutinied against him and murdered him when he tried to prevent them from sacking the city.

Death of Agrippa Postumus

Agrippa Postumus was the third son of Marcus Agrippa. Whilst his elder two brothers Gaius and Lucius were adopted by the emperor, Postumus was left in adopted to continue the family name. Only after his brothers deaths was his adopted by Augustus along with Tiberius. He was described as a rude and brutish sort, Tacitus defends him slightly by saying " He was] the young, physically tough, indeed brutish, Agrippa Postumus. Though devoid of every good quality, he had been involved in no scandal".

In AD 9 Postumus was banished and exiled to Pianosa. The reasons for this are unclear, was he involved in a conspiracy against the Emperor, was he mentally ill or was it just because he was a brute? Interestingly his sister Julia the Younger and her husband were banished around the same time for. Conspiracy. Ancient sources report that Livia always dislike Postumus and was wary that he did not get in the way of Tiberius becoming emperor.

Postumus's banishment did ensure Tiberius's priority as Augustus's heir. Tacitus [6] reports a rumor that Augustus paid a highly covert visit to the island in 13 AD to apologize to his adopted son and give him notice of plans to return him to Rome. Augustus was accompanied by a trusted friend, Paullus Fabius Maximus, and swore him to secrecy about the matter Maximus then told his wife, Marcia, who mentioned it to Livia. Maximus was soon found dead, and Marcia subsequently claimed she was responsible for his death. The truth of this visit is not confirmed whilst some historians think it is untrue.

Upon Augustus death Postumus was executed. The JSTOR articule by Robert Detweiler from The Classical Journal Vol 65 lists the candidates for his death as 1) Augustus. It is possible that Augustus had arranged orders that upon his death Postumus be killed. It seems strange to me to do this if he was worried about the succession of Tiberius. Better that Postumus is gone before his own death to prevent anyone trying to rally to him. On the flip side he can take the blame for the death and as he himself is dead it lives Tiberius in the clear.

2) Tiberius ordered the death on his succession then pretended he did not order it and wanted the death investigated. Subsequently this investigation did not occur. This makes me think it was either a play act that he was angry at the death that he ordered or he did not order it but dropped the investigation when he realised the death was to his benefit.

3) Livia. Ordered the death as soon as Augustus died to protect her sons succession, hence when Tiberius found out he stopped the investigation to protect Livia. Livia might have worried about Postumus ever since Augustus's supposed visit.

4) the guards acting on there own initiative upon hearing of Augustus death. To me the most unlikely.

I don't believe Augustus visit Postumus, he would not be able to keep the visit secret and why promise to release him only to leave him to rot. Who do you think killed Postumus?

So ends the reign of Ladislaus Postumus, the greatest Archduke in Austrian history

Rule 5: My first ruler just died in my Austria game. Not pictured are the junior partners of Poland and Lithuania that Ladislaus also acquired before his death or the throne of Burgundy that he inherited earlier.

How did you get those PUs early enough to inherit them on his death

So you gonna vassal swarm WC or not? Like voltaires nightmare type of hre and lessgoo brrr wc

Just got Brandenburg in a PU from an event so the worlds my oyster rn.

How were you able to keep France loyal? Don’t they have the +50% liberty desire from the historical rivals modifier

I was able to overcome that by increasing my diplo rep and using the Strong Duchies privilege. That combined with supporting loyalists + improving relations was enough to get liberty desire under 50.

Using 20 prestige you can buy down 10% LD. Up to a max of -100% LD, which pretty much keeps any nation in check. As emperor of the HRE you fight tons of little wars so you will drown in prestige.

What happend to your governing capacity after that ?

Only a couple of hundred points over. No big deal

Governing capacity is just a number

Wait, can Ladislaus Posthumus survive? I've restarted Austria at least a dozen times (for a wide variety of reasons) and he always dies before he can take the throne. Always. In all my attempts I've never had an Archduke Ladislaus.

Wait, can Ladislaus Posthumus survive?

Yes he can. How do you think AI sometimes gets PU on whole Hungary?

Hungary gets an event where they decide whether to let him rule or kill him, and if they kill him you lose your Ladislaus too

He lived a long full life for me. When he came of age I got an event that put Hungary under a PU so I think he's meant to live, or at least the devs consider it as a possibility.

I think it's just really common he dies. I did an austria run that took 4 attempts because in two of the attempts he died just before coming of age.

Many people are asking about France, but I’m curious about how you did it overall, because I’m only new to the game and don’t understand how inheriting thrones work on ruler death. The closest I’ve had to something like this is my really good France game I have going and I inherited burgundy through event. So how does this inheritance work?


Agrippa Postumus was born in 12 BC, the posthumous son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. Growing up, Postumus was the best friend of the future emperor Claudius. The deaths of his uncle Augustus' sons Lucius Caesar and Gaius Caesar in 2 and 4 AD, respectively, led to Augustus adopting Postumus and his cousin Tiberius as his sons, with Tiberius being the designated heir and Postumus receiving Augustus' bloodline. Postumus was known to be brutish, insolent, stubborn, and potentially violent, possessing great physical strength and obsessing over fishing.

Downfall and death

Postumus also had an affair with Claudius' sister Livilla, and, in 6 AD, Empress Livia convinced Livilla to help her frame Postumus for rape to ensure that the next emperor would be a strong one, and not brutish like Postumus. Livilla trysted with Postumus before biting his hand and calling to the guards that she was being raped, and Postumus was arrested. Upon hearing of the incident, Augustus banished Postumus to a villa near Pompeii. He lost the Julian name and returned to the gens Vipsania, and his vices increased daily. In 7 AD, he was banished to a rocky island between Italia and Corsica, and an armed guard was installed there and the Roman Senate was ordered to never allow his release.

On a trip to Corsica, Augustus visited Postumus, and, aware of Postumus' innocence after a conversation with Claudius (in whom Postumus confided about Livia's schemes), he promised to pardon him. In 14 AD, Augustus changed his will to favor Postumus for the succession, but Livia poisoned Augustus' figs, causing him to die. Immediately after Augustus' death, Postumus was killed by the Praetorian Guard on the orders of Sejanus, who had been sent by Livia to ensure that her son Tiberius inherited the throne. Sejanus himself stabbed Postumus in the chest as two guards restrained him, and Sejanus had Postumus weighted with stones and buried at sea.

Postumus - "The Rebel"

Authentic Roman C oin encased in Pendant with Signature Rounded Box Chain . Pendant and chain available in solid 925 silver or solid 18K gold.

Limited Edition: Authentic Roman coin plated in 18K gold with solid 18K gold chain & pendant.

Authentic Coin Details:

Coin Type & Age: Silver Denarius, 260-269 AD
Emperor: Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus
Diameter/Weight: 20 - 23 mm / 3 - 4 g
Front/Back: Portrait of Emperor / Mythological & Military Themes

During a time of chaos and decline, one man rose up to defend the crumbling northern Roman provinces from Germanic barbarians. A local hero who had risen through the Roman army, Postumus pushed back the invaders and was quickly crowned emperor of a new world power -- the Gallic Empire. The result was one of the most successful rebellions in history, a feat that earned him the moniker 'Savior of Gaul'.


WI: Postumus Agrippa Succeeded Augustus?

Poor Agrippa Posthumous. I could never fathom how a love of fishing and telling bawdy jokes could be seen as a scandal. The image of the guy pleasantly fishing on the Tiber always struck me as probably the most human description of the "son of Neptune." It seems he was merely a victim of Court Intrigue that went over his head rather than a major player.

That and Augustus describing his grandson as "my little donkey" in his overly saccharine personal letters (I think that was it) would always stand out when I read about the family.


A bit exagerated about Agrippa Postumus' ancestry.

His father was the great military hero of his age and had been the first man associated to the supreme power by Augustus. He was consul 3 times : one time was enough to make his children nobles.

And contrarily to Tiberius or Germanicus, Postumus had in his veins the "divine" blood of Augustus. The power of this blood was very strong. It was decisive in Caligula's and Nero's reaching supreme powers instead of other "heirs/candidates" like Tiberius Gemellus and Britannicus.

What would have been for Germanicus is not his ancestry but his marriage to Augustus' grand daughter Agrippina and the fact that they had many children among which 3 sons alive before Augustus' death.


A bit exagerated about Agrippa Postumus' ancestry.

His father was the great military hero of his age and had been the first man associated to the supreme power by Augustus. He was consul 3 times : one time was enough to make his children nobles.

And contrarily to Tiberius or Germanicus, Postumus had in his veins the "divine" blood of Augustus. The power of this blood was very strong. It was decisive in Caligula's and Nero's reaching supreme powers instead of other "heirs/candidates" like Tiberius Gemellus and Britannicus.

What would have been for Germanicus is not his ancestry but his marriage to Augustus' grand daughter Agrippina and the fact that they had many children among which 3 sons alive before Augustus' death.


And you know Cicero's answer to this senator ?

"At least my mother has let me know whi is my father!"

You can more or less compare Agrippa to Marius. Both were new men. Booth were the great military hero of their age. And if both always remained despised by some old noble families, their children were nobles and married into the greatest noble families (Marius the younger was married to a Licinia from the Licinii Crassi).

And you also have to take into account that the nobility had become more open with the rule of Augustus who was himself an upstart, though having been adopted by his patrician relative Julius Caesar. Anthony dubbed Octavian as the son of a rope maker.


And you know Cicero's answer to this senator ?

"At least my mother has let me know whi is my father!"

You can more or less compare Agrippa to Marius. Both were new men. Booth were the great military hero of their age. And if both always remained despised by some old noble families, their children were nobles and married into the greatest noble families (Marius the younger was married to a Licinia from the Licinii Crassi).

And you also have to take into account that the nobility had become more open with the rule of Augustus who was himself an upstart, though having been adopted by his patrician relative Julius Caesar. Anthony dubbed Octavian as the son of a rope maker.


You have been mistaken by wikipedia which says that Marius the younger's wife was a Mucia. But this is wrong and has long been proven wrong by the best scholars (first of all Munzer).

I also think you are confusing 2 different Mucii Scaevolae from 2 different lines of the same family : the augur (159-88, consul 117 and teacher and mentor of Cicero) and the pontifex (consul 95 and murdered in 82 by extremist marians).

Cicero, in 2 of his letters (Brut 211 and ad Att 12.49.2) speaks of these people whom he knew very well since he was from Arpinum like Marius and was something close to a friend with Marius the younger and since he was also an admirer of the orators Crassus (consul 95 and censor 91) and Scaevola the augur (his teacher and mentor).

The Mucius who interceded for Marius against Sulla in 88 in the Senate and to whose house Marius the the younger fled and hid in 88 was the old Augur, not the Pontifex.

Marius the younger would not have had murdered and did not have the father of his wife murdered 6 years later in 88. His father Marius would also not have allied (by marrying his son) to a line of the Mucii who was allied with the Metelli, since the Metelli were Marius's enemies.

Mucius Scaevola the augur had only 2 daughters. One of them was married to an Acilius Glabrio and the other to Lucius Licinius Crassus, the orator admired by Cicero.
And Cicero explicitly wrote that the youngest Marius (whom Anthony had killed in 44) was the grand son of Crassus the orator.
Licinius Crassus the orator had 2 daughters too, both named Licinia : one married to a Cornelius Scipio (and mother of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Scipio) and the other married to Marius the younger.
Scaevola the augur was the grandfather of Marius the younger's wife.

As far as the great Marius is concerned, he did marry a noble patrician woman, Caesar's aunt. But don't mistake here too. At that time, this line of the Julii Caesares was not important. They were relegated, third rank nobles, though from ancient patrician family. In this mariage, it is not Marius who struck a good deal : it is the Julii Caesares who made the right bet on the new man who was just about to become the great hero of the republic. The mariage took place around 110 (since Marius the younger was born in 109) before Marius was elected consul for the first time.

But you are perfectly right about Mucia Tertia wife of Pompey : she was the daughter of the pontifex murdered in 82.

The same confusions are possible between 2 lines of the Julii Caesares :
- the one which was initially the most powerful and prestigious, with the consul of 157, then his grandsons Lucius (consul 90 who passed the law granting citizenship to the italians during the social war, and was Anthony's grandfather) and Gaius the orator, both murdered in 87, like their ally Marcus Antonius orator (Anthony's grandfather), because they had betrayed and turned against their former ally (and to a certain extent former patron) Marius.
- the one who was most closely allied with Marius and remained faithful to Marius, with the 2 brothers of the Julia married to Marius. These 2 brothers were Sextus Julius Caesar, consul 91 (thanks to the support of Marius) but was unfortunately killed in battle during the social war, and Gaius Julius Caesar the father of the future dictator Caesar. That is this alliance with Marius and the loyalty of the young Gaius Julius Caesar to the cause of the marians and of the populares which was one of the keys of his career, his popularity, and his successes.

Watch the video: Postumus - Elysium Teljes album (August 2022).