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The Codex Manesse (also called Manessische Liederhandschrift or Manessische Handschrift , so called by the Swiss scholar Johann Jakob Bodmer after the respective place of storage also called Great Heidelberger Liederhandschrift or Pariser Handschrift ) is the most extensive and most famous German song manuscript of the Middle Ages . Of German studies , the collection will briefly with C. respectively. It has been kept in the Heidelberg University Library since 1888 (signature: Heidelberg University Library, Cod. Pal. Germ. Or cpg 848).
The codex consists of 426 parchment sheets with a size of 35.5 × 25 cm written on both sides , which were later paginated by hand . It contains a total of 140 empty pages and numerous pages that are only partially written on. The text was not only published several times in improved historical-critical editions , but - in contrast to other manuscripts - also printed with exact character (see bibliography).
The Manessische Liederhandschrift contains poetic works in Middle High German . The basic stock was made in Zurich around 1300 , probably in connection with the collecting activities of the Zurich patrician family Manesse , perhaps in the Oetenbach monastery of the Dominican Sisters . Several addenda were added by around 1340. The codex is a representative sum of the medieval lay song and is also the main source of the "post-classical" minstrel and largely the only source. The total of 138 miniatures that depict the poets in an idealized form during courtly activities or illustrate certain passages from their work that were already better known at the time (such as Walthers von der Vogelweide Reichston “I saz ûf eime steine und dahte bein mit lege”) are considered to be important document of Upper Rhine Gothic illumination . Another miniature without text is just sketched out. Walther von Breisach was left without a miniature . A total of four artists provided the miniatures for the work: 110 illustrations are attributable to the painter of the basic stock, 20 to the first additional painter, four to the second and three (plus a preliminary drawing) to the third.
The heraldic tinctures are the same in Imperial heraldry as in other European countries. Black charges occur on red fields and vice versa more often than in other countries, as in the arms of Stadler, Roder and Homberg.  Tinctures are described using the German words for each (i.e. schwarz for sable, rot for gules, gold for Or, etc.), and argent is usually called silber (silver) though weiß (white) also occurs. The furs are referred to as follows: Ermine is Hermelin, Ermines (or counter-ermine) is Gegenhermelin, Erminois is Goldhermelin, Pean is Gegengoldhermelin, Vair is Feh or Grauwerk, Countervair is Gegenfeh, and Vairy of (tincture) and (tincture) is Buntfeh ob (tinktur) und (tinktur). 
Furs known to German heraldry include Hermelin (ermine), Gegenhermelin (counter-ermine, which is rare), Feh, also sometimes termed Grauwerk (vair), Buntfeh (which the English call "vairy"), Krückenfeh (potent) and Kürsch (natural fur, which is unknown in English heraldry).  Kürsch is typically shown as dags of fur overlapping like roof tiles, and even ermine and vair are sometimes shown in this fashion, called Schuppenfeh.  While each of these variations and some others exist in German heraldry, it is worth noting that even ermine is uncommon, vair is seldom found, and the others are rarer still. [note 1]
|Tinctures||Colours / Farben|
|Metals / Metalle||Furs / Pelzwerk|
|English||Or||Argent||Ermine||Vair||Vairy (Or and gules)||Fur (natural)|
|Deutsch||Gold/Gelb||Silber/Weiß||Hermelin||Grauwerk/Feh||Buntfeh (gold und rot)||Kürsch|
As in English heraldry, the names for the lines of division and variation are closely related with those of the corresponding ordinaries. The apparent exceptions to this rule, however, are that a shield divided per fess is simply termed geteilt (divided) and a shield divided per pale is termed gespalten (split). German heraldry (and with it, Nordic heraldry) does take a distinct approach to divisions of the field, however, in dividing by the scheme of "im (Gemeine Figur)-schnitt (X:Y) (Richtung des Schnitts)," or, "by (common charge)-section (X:Y) (direction of the cut)," where X signifies the number of charges issuant above the cut, and Y signifies the number issuant below.  Thus, Im Lindenblattschnitt (1:1) schrägrechtsgeteilt, or, "by linden leaf section (1:1) party per bend," yields a line that starts at the dexter chief corner, slanting down per bend, then makes the form of two conjoined linden leaves (the first inverted) in pale, and then continues to the sinister base.  This also works with many other charges, and may divide the shield per pale, per fess, or other ways. 
The Codex Manesse
Medieval art is always new. It belongs to a collective childhood eager to chronicle every joyous moment of its journey into the future, despite calamities. The plague ended the golden era of the Provençal troubadour (langue d’oc), the trouvères (langue d’oïl) of northern France, and the Minnesingers [i] of German-language lands.
The word “trouvère” applies to all three groups. They were finding (“trouver”), or creating, and they were preserving. The Codex Manesse is a comprehensive collection of German-language songs constituting a most precious and informative testimonial. The codex is an anthology of texts with portraits, but many of its folios are illuminated manuscripts that have survived the test of time. It could well be “the most beautifully illumined German manuscript in centuries.” (See Codex Manesse – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
The images featured above and below adorn the Codex Manesse, an extensive song book compiled and illumined “between c. 1304 when the main part was completed, and c. 1340.” It is “the most important single source of medieval Minnesang poetry [love poetry].” (See Codex Manesse – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
The Codex Manesse‘s main source was the collection of patrician Rüdiger II Manesse and his son. It was produced in Zürich, and was written in Middle High German. (See Codex Manesse – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
The lyric poets who contributed songs to the celebrated Codex Manesse are listed on the website of Cod. Pal. germ. 848 and under the Codex’s Wikipedia entry Codex Manesse. Many of its contributors were aristocrats and among these dignitaries are Kaiser [Emperor] Heinrich (fol. 6r), König (King) Konrad der Junge (fol. 7r), König Tyro von Schötten (fol. 8r), König Wenzel von Böhmen (fol. 10r), Herzog Heinrich von Breslau (fol. 11v). Earlier folios feature the more aristocratic lyric poets. (See Codex Manesse.)
Manuscript history [ edit ]
The compilation of the codex was patronized by the Manesse family of Zürich, presumably by Rüdiger II Manesse (born before 1252, died after 1304). The house of Manesse declined in the late 14th century, selling their castle in 1393. The fate of the codex during the 15th century is unknown, but by the 1590s it had passed into possession of baron Johann Philipp of Hohensax (two of whose forebears are portrayed in the codex, on foll. 48v and 59v). In 1604, Melchior Goldast published excerpts of its didactic texts.
After 1657 it was in the French royal library, from which it passed to the Bibliothèque Nationale, where the manuscript was studied by Jacob Grimm in 1815. In 1888, after long bargaining, it was sold to the Bibliotheca Palatina of Heidelberg, following a public subscription headed by William I and Otto von Bismarck.
The first critical editions of the Codex Manesse appeared in the early nineteenth century. The codex is frequently referred to by Minnesang scholars and in editions simply by the abbreviation C, introduced by Karl Lachmann, who used A and B for the two main earlier Minnesang codices (the Kleine Heidelberger Liederhandschrift and the Weingartner Liederhandschrift respectively).
Two leaves of a 15th-century copy of the manuscript, called the Troßsche Fragment (Tross Fragment), were held in the Berlin State Library, but went missing in 1945. Δ]
C odex Manesse may well be the quintessential medieval manuscript. The parade of miniatures - gallant knights and comely maidens, chess, backgammon and falconry, jousting tournaments and heraldry, castles and court musicians - feature the types of (near) cliché imagery we all immediately identify with the period.
The manuscript was compiled in the early 1300s at the request of the Manesse family in an attempt to record the major figures of the minnesang - the German tradition of composing and performing love songs, similar to the provincial troubadours of France.
The 137 manuscript illustrations depict 12th and 13th century poets ( minnesänger ) in scenes reflective of their names or themes from their songs. They mostly came from the nobility - Dukes, Kings and Counts - but sometimes the minnesang included educated members of the middle and lower classes.
The Manesse brothers observed that the bourgeois classes of their time were gaining in power, partly as a result of the 13th century interregnum that had seen much of the authority of the Holy Roman Empire ceded to territorial rulers. New forms of literature - particularly the fables - were replacing the minnesang as the dominant oral and written tradition, so the motivating force behind the production of Codex Manesse was as a means to preserve the history of the declining Germanic troubadour culture. Codex Manesse remains, therefore, the most important primary source document for love songs of the middle ages in middle high German.
- . (the origin of the images above).
- The wikipedia article on Codex Manesse references a 3-part article (in Portuguese) by R da Costa from 2003 that undertakes an iconographic analysis of the manuscript: one[trans.] two[trans.] three[trans.].
5 comments :
Every time I visit here, I come away amazed at the treasure house of images and information that you gift us with. Thank you for another priceless post!
Incredible. I am amazed by the combination of different patterns within the clothes. The colors are beautiful.
I am truly indebted to you! I was previously unaware of the existence of the codex Manesse, and since I am working on a series of blog entries relating to the music of the period this is a wonderful discovery!
Oh great. Reminds me to add a music tag at delish.
I've always been very fond of these. my parents had a few prints from the manuscript up on the wall once upon a time and I actually embroidered one of the pictures (not one shown here) on the back of a shirt when I was about 15. This selection includes some I hadn't seen before.
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Otto IV, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal, nicknamed Otto with the arrow (&ndash 27 November 1308 or 1309) was the Margrave of Brandenburg from the House of Ascania from 1266 until his death.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 &ndash 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
Reign as King of Poland
Accession to the throne and coronation
When Bolesław V the Chaste died on December 1279, Henryk Probus was proclaimed first King of Poland since Bolesław II the Generous in 1076. His coronation took place on 15 March 1280 at Gniezno Cathedral. The coronation of Przemysł II and his wife Margaret took place at Gniezno Cathedral on Sunday 26 June 1295, the day of Saints John and Paul. Η] It is unknown why it took place as a simple coronation ceremony (ordinis cororandi) despite it was the first Polish coronation in 219 years. Besides Archbishop Jakub of Gniezno, the other main representants of church hierarchy who participated in the ceremony were: ⎖] ⎗] Bishops Konrad of Lubusz, Jan II of Poznań, Wisław of Włocławek and Gedko II of Płock. From the Polish episcopate, Bishops Johann III Romka of Wrocław and Jan Muskata of Kraków were possibly either present in person or sent their consents. ⎘] Historians generally agree with the above list of Bishops who participated in the coronation. Certainly are some doubts about the presence of Bishop Konrad of Lubusz, who on 18 June was in Prague. ⎙] However, as was noted by Kazimierz Tymieniecki, ⎚] he could be able to make the travel to Gniezno for the coronation. There is no information about the secular witnesses of the coronation certainly many dignitaries from both Greater Poland and Pomerelia must have arrived. ⎛] Similarly, no sources point to the presence of other Piasts rulers in the ceremony. ⎜]
Henry IV's major contenders for the Kraków throne were Leszek II's half-brother Władysław I the Elbow-high and Duke Bolesław II of Płock, who counted on the support of the Lesser Poland nobility. However, the Duke of Płock failed to obtain the decisive support of the Castellan Sulk the Bear (Sułk z Niedźwiedzia), who was the Governor of the city. On 26 February 1289 the bloody Battle of Siewierz took place between the troops of the Dukes of Płock and Kuyavia, and Henry IV's troops, supported by King Rudolph I and the Dukes of Opole, Głogów and Ścinawa (Steinau). The battle ended with a victory for the Masovia-Kuyavia coalition from two of Henry IV's allies, Duke Przemko of Ścinawa was killed in the battle, and Duke Bolko I of Opole was seriously injured and captured by Władysław I the Elbow-high.
Despite this success, Duke Bolesław II of Płock unexpectedly resigned his pretensions, leaving all the Kraków inheritance to Wladyslaw I the Elbow-high. As the war turned favorable to him, Wladyslaw I, with the assistance of the Bishop of Kraków, Paul of Półkozic (who was later imprisoned after rebelled against him), managed to besiege and capture Wawel castle and forced the Silesian troops to retreat to Skała.
However, Henry IV regrouped his forces and marched against Kraków in person at the head of his army in August 1289. Thanks to the betrayal of the Kraków townspeople and the help of the Franciscans (who even hid him in their monastery), Henry IV took the city and was recognized as High Duke. Despite his victory, Henry IV decided to remain in Sandomierz.
Henry IV depicted as a minnesinger in the Codex Manesse, about 1304
However, the beginning of his reign wasn't peaceful. Unexpectedly Leo I of Halych-Peremyshl, with the help of King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, planned the invasion of Kraków. With the help of Lithuanians, Tartars and some Russian principalities, in February 1280 he invaded Lublin, crossed the Vistula and besieged Sandomierz, who managed to resisted thanks to this, Leszek II was able to reunited enough forces to repel the invasion. The final battle took place in Goźlice on 23 February, where the Polish forces (under the command of Peter, voivode of Kraków and Janusz, voivode of Sandomierz), forced the Halych army to flee. Later in that year, Leszek II organized a retaliatory expedition, who burned and destroyed border areas until Lviv.
The following year, Leszek II attacked the Duchy of Wrocław, who belonged to Henryk IV Probus this was in response for the imprisonment of Leszek II's ally Przemysł II after a meeting in probably Barycz. This expedition, besides the significant loot who bring to him, didn't gave the expected result.
Also the following years were not peaceful. In 1282 the Yotvingians invaded Lublin and plundered several villages thanks to this unexpected attack they advanced to Łopiennik Górny. Leszek II, after the initial surprise, managed to pursuit the invasors and somewhere behind the Narew river they clashed into a bloody battle. The Yotvingians where slaughtered, and this defeat effectively destroyed the combat strength of the tribe. One year later, the Lithuanians made a retaliatory expedition, but Leszek II was able to defeat them in the Battle of Rowiny.
Conflict with Paweł of Przemankowo, Bishop of Kraków
Despite all his military victories, Leszek II's position in Kraków-Sandomierz was not too strong. During almost all his reign he had to fight with the internal opposition. One of the leading opponents to his rule where Paweł of Przemankowo, Bishop of Kraków and Janusz Starża, voivode of Sandomierz. The dispute with Bishop Paweł started at the beginning of the 1280s, when he refused to approve Leszek II's restrictive policy against the Church. In this conflict also had an important part the widow of Bolesław V, Kinga of Hungary, who, according to her husband's will, received the district of Stary Sącz as her Oprawa wdowia this district was very important and strategic (because connected with Hungary) and, according to Leszek II, too valuable to be in the hands of the Dowager High Duchess (although another motive could be that he wanted to give that land to his own wife Gryfina). During 1282-1283, the conflict came in the most dramatic stage, when Bishop Paweł (who fiercely supported the rights of Kinga) was captured after a meeting at Łagów and imprisoned in Sieradz. The Bishop of Kraków only regained his freedom thanks to the intervention of the Polish Church. A final settlement was signed only on 30 November 1286, when Leszek II agreed to pay Bishop Paweł 3,000 fines as compensation for damages and the recognition of the Bishopric's privileges.
Knighthood revolts of 1282 and 1285
The government of Leszek II also caused the opposition of the local knighthood, which could be surprising given the numerous times that they served the High Duke in his expeditions. The first revolt took place in 1282, when the voivode Janusz Starża, using the absence of Leszek II, gave the fortresses of Sandomierz and Radom to Konrad II of Czersk. This rebellion (if really occurred, because the first information about it came from Jan Długosz, and strangely the voivode remained in his post) was quickly suppressed.
A more serious revolt took place three years later, in April 1285, when Otto Toporczyk, voivode of Sandomierz, Janusz Starża, the former voivode and now castellan of Kraków and Żegota, voivode of Kraków, raised an army against Leszek II, who taken by surprise, was forced to escape to Hungary. Fortunately for Leszek II, the candidate for the throne supported by the rebels, Konrad II of Czersk, failed to take the Wawel Castle, defended by the faithful local burghers, led by High Duchess Gryfina. On 3 May 1285 took place a decisive battle in Bogucice, where with the help of the Hungarians Leszek II obtained a great victory, forcing the rebels to leave the country. This overcoming opposition forced Leszek II to modified his local policy, so until the end of his reign the government was more stable.
Mongol Invasion in Poland
In 1287-1288 took place the third invasion of the Tatars to Lesser Poland led by Nogai Khan and Talabuga. Their forces, with the support of some Kievan Rus' principalities where too great to face them in battle, so the knights and population took refuge in fortresses. Leszek II traveled to Hungary to ask for help. This time, Lesser Poland was better prepared for the Mongol invasion than in the previous two incursions - with several fortresses in Kraków and Sandomierz to defend the lands. The destruction, however, was quite significant.
Cooperation of the Holy Roman Empire
Attempts to obtain supreme authority
The relation of Henry IV with his Silesian relatives in general was not good. In 1280 he again suffered the invasion of the Duke Henry V the Fat of Legnica, who was supported by the Margrave of Brandenburg, who could resist with unusual difficulty.
In order to normalize the situation in February of the next year Henry IV organized a meeting in Sądowel, a village located in the Duchy of Wrocław, for the purpose to find ways of mutual cooperation between the Silesian dukes. Henry IV, however, had other plans: immediately he captured his long-time enemy, Duke Henry V the Fat of Legnica, as well as his own allies, Dukes Henry III of Głogów and Przemysł II of Greater Poland, in order to obtain political concessions from them.
Przemysł II was forced to give the strategic Lesser Polish land of Wieluń (also known as Ruda) and to acknowledge Henry IV's overlordship, paying homage to him. In subsequent years, the good politics of Henry IV were reflected in the voluntary submission of the Silesian dukes Przemko of Ścinawa and Bolko I of Opole the re-unification of Silesia seemed within reach.
However, not all the Silesian dukes accepted his authority: Dukes Bolko I the Strict, Konrad II the Hunchback and three of the four sons of Władysław of Opole: Casimir of Bytom, Mieszko I of Cieszyn and Przemysław of Racibórz were completely against Henry's politics. With the Opole Dukes the situation was more delicate: in 1287, Henry IV obtained the annulment of his marriage with their sister, who was sent back to her homeland. The fourth of Władysław's sons, Bolko I, remained faithful to Henry IV's politics.
The first attempt of Henry IV to take the Seniorate Province at Kraków was during 1280–1281, as a response to the invasion which the Polish High Duke Leszek II the Black had made against Wrocław before. However, this trip ended unsuccessfully.
War against Kievan Rus', Lithuania and Yotvingia
Conflict with Bishop Thomas II of Wrocław
In the years 1282–1287 Henry IV was involved in a long-lasting dispute with the Bishop of Wrocław Tomas II Zaremba. The first phase of the conflict was already noted in the years 1274–1276, concluded with an arbitration which wasn't satisfied any of the parts. The disputes erupted again in 1282 this time, the conflict was for the lands and properties seized by the church in a difficult period that followed after the Battle of Legnica, and for the violation of the immunity of the Church hierarchy in trials.
At the beginning of 1282 the Bishop sent their complaint to the Papal Legate Philip of Ferno, which was to address the settlement of the dispute. His ruling was favorable to the Church hierarchy, and Henry IV appealed. In 1283 Henry IV organized a big Episcopal convention in Nysa, whose main attraction was a knight's tournament. However, the tensions continued and Thomas II, using the support of the Papal Legate, and wanting to break the rebelliousness of Henry IV he excommunicated him and the whole Duchy in March 1284. However, the Duke of Wrocław refused to subject to the Bishop's will and in the same year appealed to Pope Martin IV. It soon became clear, of course, that he couldn't expect a positive message from Rome. Despite Thomas II's efforts to subordinate the local clergy under his rule, several religious Orders remained faithful to Henry IV, among others, the Franciscans. The conflict continued, even after the unsuccessful attempts for mediation by the Archbishop of Gniezno, Jakub Świnka.
In 1285 Henry IV took advantage of his power over the clergy and confiscated some lands which belonged to the bishopric Duchy of Nysa–Otmuchów. The humiliated Bishop Thomas II was forced to emigrate to the Duchy of Racibórz. The last act of the dispute took place in 1287 when Henry IV entered Racibórz. Thomas II was no longer able to escape and finally decided to subordinate to the Duke of Wrocław. But Henry IV was generous in his triumph: he restored the rich lands obtained earlier from the Bishopric and also founded a Kolegiata consecrated to the Holy Cross.
Meanwhile, in foreign politics Henry IV continued to try to obtain the subordination of the other Silesian Dukes, which indirectly could bring him the Royal Crown. In 1284 he used the betrayal of the Greater Poland noble family of Zaremba (Thomas II's family) as a pretext to capture the town of Kalisz. It soon became clear that the Dukes of Greater Poland never accepted this loss, so after some discussions, Kalisz was exchanged with the town of Ołobok by Duke Przemysł II.
Feud of Przemysł
On 30 September 1288, Leszek II the Black, Duke of Sieradz and High Duke of Poland, died without issue. This event opened an opportunity for Henry IV to realize his ambitious plans to gain Kraków and the title of High Duke. With this purpose, he began to find suitable allies from 1287, when he reconciled with Przemysł II, returning him Wieluń. According to the Professor and Historian Oswald Balzer, shortly before began the preparations to the First Coalition of Piast Dukes formed by Leszek II the Black, Henry IV, Przemysł II and Henry III of Głogow, which had the intention to make the unification of Poland. Notwithstanding the veracity of this theory, after hearing the news of Leszek II's death, Henry IV was ready for action.
During his reign, Henry succeeded in strengthening central power across his duchy, as well as improving its economy. He supported progress of mining and cities, many of which received German city law and various privileges. He was also an educated man, fluently spoke several languages and actively supported Western court culture and chivalric ethos. Henry himself was a talented poet two of his poems were recorded in Codex Manesse.
Wappenbücher des Mittelalters [ Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten ]
Zu den bedeutendsten Werken von Wappenbüchern sind zu rechnen:
- Scheiblersches Wappenbuch, älterer Teil 1450 bis 1480 mit 476 Wappen, jüngerer Teil 16. oder 17. Jahrhundert mit 148 Wappen.
- Wappenbuch der österreichischen Herzöge, etwa 1445 bis 1457, 50 Blätter mit etwa 170 Wappen.
- Wappenbuch des Conrad Grünenberg, Ende 15. Jahrhundert, 331 farbige Wappentafeln mit 2000 Wappen.
- Wappenbuch des Gallus Öhem.
- Wappenbuch aus dem Breisgau, Ende 15. Jahrhundert, 103 Blätter mit 1504 Wappen.
- Wappenbuch des Reichsherolds Caspar Sturm.
- Wappenbuch von den Ersten.
- Wappenbuch von St. Gallen, 1466 bis 1470 auf 338 Seiten etwa 200 Wappen. Ώ]
- Wappenbuch Gelre, 14. Jahrhundert, von Claes Heinenzoon, genannt Gelre.
- Eichstätter Wappenbuch, 1474 bis 1478, 351 Seiten mit etwa 2000 Wappen.
- Pfälzer Wappenbuch, etwa um 1460, auf 200 Blätter sind 1080 Wappen.
- Wappenbüchlein der Zunft zu Pfistern in Luzern, von 1408, 5 Blätter mit 59 Zunftwappen.
- Wappen von Rivoli, 1500, 239 Seiten mit 33 Wappenbeschreibungen der Wappen im Kastell Rivoli (im 14. Jahrhundert entstanden und im 17. Jahrhundert zerstört).
- Hans Ingerams Wappenbuch auch Ingeram-Codex, 1459, 280 Seiten mit etwa 1100 Wappen.
- Hans Burggrafs Wappenbuch, Mitte 15. Jahrhundert, 156 Blatt mit etwa 600 Wappen.
- Große Heidelberger Liederhandschrift (Codex Manesse), Ende 13. bis Anfang 14. Jahrhundert, auf 120 Blättern (folia) Wappen und Helmzierden.
- Bruderschaftsbuch des St. Hubertus-Ordens, Verzeichnis der Mitglieder des 1444 gestifteten Ordens, 142 Blatt mit 390 Vollwappen.
- Heroldsbuch des Jülicher Hubertus-Ordens, 1480 angelegt von Hermann von Brüninghausen, Wappenkönig des Herzogs von Jülich, 130 Blatt mit über 1000 Vollwappen und mehr als 100 Schilden des Hubertusordens.
- Leipziger Wappenbuch, um 1450 begonnen, auf 96 Blatt sind 602 Vollwappen.
- Miltenberger Wappenbuch, Ende 15. Jahrhundert, 85 Blatt zeigen etwa 1700 Wappen.
- Berliner Wappenbuch, um 1470, auf 254 Seiten etwa 900 Wappen.
- Innsbrucker Wappenbuch, etwa 1460/1470 auf 157 Blatt 480 Wappen von Kaiser und den vier Grafen der Quaternionen, Kurfürstenwappen, Adelsgeschlechterwappen (tiroler, fränkische, bayerische).
- Anniversar von Elgg, 15. Jahrhundert, 48 Blatt mit Wappen von Bürgern.
- Anniversar von Uster, 15. Jahrhundert, 58 Blatt mit 60 Vollwappen.
- Wappenbuch der Gemeinden des Kantons Zürich, geschaffen von Gerold Edlibach in den späten 1480er-Jahren.
- Turiner Wappenbuch, 1312, etwa 119 Wappenbeschreibungen in französischer Sprache der Teilnehmer an der Kaiserkrönung Heinrich VII. (29. Juni 1312), Staatsarchiv Turin ?
- Armorial d’ Auvergne et Forest, Wappensammlung von Guillaume Revel (Herold bei König Karl VII. von Frankreich) ΐ]
- Donaueschinger Wappenbuch, 1433 Α]
Codex Manesse Knights 3rd team.
Another set of Codex Manesse Knights. This time taken from only two illustrations as the unnamed gentlemen were opponents of Hertog van Brabant and Der Durner. The duke’s adversary required an urgent head transplant as on the original illustration his own head was split by dukes sword. I borrowed his new a head from duke’s bannerman. I hope he don’t mind. Also the horse of unnamed knight from Der Durner illustration required some serious surgery as it was missing the back part. Anyway another four knights join the fray. Enjoy.