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James Lovegrove : First World War

James Lovegrove : First World War


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James Lovegrove, the son of a master tailor from Mayfair was born in 1898. After leaving school he joined a firm of architects in London.

On the outbreak of the First World War Lovegrove was only sixteen but he came under pressure from members of the Order of the White Feather to join the armed forces. Lovegrove decided to become a soldier after attending a Vesta Tilly concert where she sung patriotic songs.

A member of the Royal North Lancashire Regiment, Lovegrove was sent to the Western Front and took part in the Battle of the Somme. He survived and by the time the Armistice was signed, he had reached the rank of lieutenant.

After the war Lovegrove became a successful businessman.

James Lovegrove died in Eastbourne in 1994.

On my way to work one morning a group of women surrounded me. They started shouting and yelling at me, calling me all sorts of names for not being a soldier! Do you know what they did? They struck a white feather in my coat, meaning I was a coward. Oh, I did feel dreadful, so ashamed.

So that night, to cheer myself up, I went to the music hall. The star of the show was Vesta Tilly, a great star of the time. She'd come on stage dressed as a soldier, singing patriotic songs, then she would invite men up unto the stage to join up and "take the king's shilling". Of course, there were a couple of recruiting sergeants standing ready in the wings. Now she was married to a Conservative M.P. Lord de Frece, and she got so many men into the army this way there was even a 'Vesta Tilly Brigade' fighting in France. Yet she had the nerve to refuse to go over and entertain the troops like many other artists did saying she couldn't spare the time.

I went to the recruiting office. The sergeant there couldn't stop laughing at me, saying things like "Looking for your father, sonny?", and "Come back next year when the war's over!" Well, I must have looked so crestfallen that he said "Let's check your measurements again". You see, I was five foot six inches and only about eight and a half stone. This time he made me out to be about six feet tall and twelve stone, at least, that is what he wrote down. All lies of course - but I was in!"

Woolwich Common, six hundred of us, sleeping under tents, in the middle of winter. I'll never forget my first night in the army. Mother had always told me to wear pyjamas or I'd get lumbago! Well, I was putting them on when the tent flap opened and a voice said "Cor bloody blimey! Come and have a look at this bloke, he's a getting dressed to go to bed!" Well, they all had a good laugh at me. I don't think most of them had seen pyjamas before. They all seemed to sleep naked. And the foul language! I'd never heard such swearing before in my life.

The public have never, even to this day, been told how bad it was for the men. No words could adequately describe the horror of it all. I am ashamed to say the officers were fed reasonably, but the men were starving. Living conditions were so filthy that I got enteric fever, was put into a field-hospital and almost died. There was so much illness of every sort amongst us. It was truly hell on earth. Lice, rats, trench foot - that's a gangrenous condition that the men got through standing in wet mud that we lived in. And trench mouth, where the gums rot and you lose your teeth. And of course dead bodies everywhere. Also the mental fear of the dreaded sniper who'd take your head off in a flash if you so much as looked over the top of the trench.

The military commanders had no respect for human life. General Douglas Haig, later he was made a Field Marshal, cared nothing about casualties. Of course, he was carrying out government policy, because after the war he was knighted and given a lump sum and a massive life-pension. I blame the public schools who bred these ego maniacs. They should never have been in charge of men. Never.

We were ordered to attack the German trenches so we fell behind a tank for cover, but the tank got a direct hit by a shell. It spun round on its tracks and burst into flames. The crew were roasted alive. They couldn't get out. Somehow we made it to the German trench, their machine-gunners were all lying dead next to their guns. Our big gun barrage before our advance had killed them. I noticed they were fixed to their guns by a length of chain so they could not run away. I suppose their high command was as bad as ours. Our lads had not eaten in days so they started eating the German rations because they were starving.


Article: Chapter and ‘Verse by James Lovegrove

You may know James Lovegrove for his Cthulhu Files (his Sherlock Holmes and Cthulhu mash-up that we loved here at SFFWorld). Here’s what James sent us when we asked him – “Why write tie-in fiction?” and, as his latest is a novel in the Firefly universe, we also asked him what the attraction was there.

Here’s what he said!

I never thought I’d write tie-in fiction.

Not that I have anything against tie-in fiction. Who doesn’t love seeing their favourite fictional worlds being expanded? Learning more about much-loved characters? Discovering new tales that slot into an existing continuity and deepen and strengthen its connective tissues?

I myself have read countless tie-in novels and comic-books, some good, some great, some bad, some indifferent. Star Wars, Star Trek, Alien, Predator, Terminator, Robocop, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, The X-Files – all of these wonderful, seminal movies and TV shows have offered suggestions of a wider lore that their fans want to know more about. They play themes that hold out the promise of almost infinite variations. They’re rich seams begging to be mined.

And among the miners there’s been a number of established, talented authors. Digging away at various licensed properties with their metaphorical shovels, they have drawn on their skills and experience and brought back gold. Alan Dean Foster is one name that immediately springs to mind, perhaps the pre-eminent exponent of the tie-in field, but also James Blish, Peter David, K W Jeter, Kristine Kathryn Rusch, Christopher Golden, Nancy Holder, Max Allan Collins, Diane Duane… It’s a long list.

There’s been some hackery along the way, don’t get me wrong. Some blatant “for the money” efforts, churned out in a couple of weeks with an eye on the payday and nothing else. However, there’s been superb stuff too – this constitutes the majority, I’d say – written with a genuine love for the source material and an honest desire to create something that is both new and at the same time true to the original.

But, like I said, I never thought I’d become a tie-in author myself. It just wasn’t in my game plan. I had other priorities. I had no interest in doing it.

It happened like this. About five years ago, I was chatting with Miranda Jewess on the phone. Miranda has edited most of my Sherlock Holmes novels for Titan Books (and if those are a quality product, she deserves much of the credit, because she makes me work exceptionally hard on them and her contribution to shaping the plots and the manuscripts is invaluable). She asked if I’d be interested in doing some tie-in work for Titan, and I said not really. “Unless,” I added, half-jokingly, “you have the licence for Firefly, because I love Firefly.”

Titan did not have the licence for Firefly. Not then. But two years later, they acquired it, and Miranda, remembering our conversation, got back in touch.

I couldn’t possibly say no, could I?

And if ever a franchise was crying out to be enlarged, it’s Firefly. Poor, tragic Firefly. That witty, gritty “space cowboys” TV show that was adored by many, but not by enough. Cancelled halfway through its first season. Cut off in its prime.

Sure, there’d been the Serenity movie, that miraculous if brief resurrection, which brought some sort of closure (and killed off two members of its ensemble cast, but let’s not go there). Still, there was so much territory that remained uncharted, so much of Joss Whedon’s ’verse left to explore.

Naively, or perhaps arrogantly, I felt I was the right person for the job.

Which is not to say I wasn’t nervous when I sat down and started writing. I was keen to capture not just the personalities of the main characters themselves but the overall tone of the show, from its mellifluous, Western-movie dialogue to its unique mix of Frontier-style brutality and moments of surprising sweetness. I was desperate not to let the show’s fans down. I wanted to give them what I myself was after, which is more of the same but with a few added wrinkles.

A novel, with its internal monologues and third-person viewpoints, enables you to get inside characters’ heads in the way a screenplay can’t. I’ve tried to make the most of that, while also delivering quick, sharp adventures containing everything that loyal Browncoats would expect: bar brawls and gunfights, betrayals and reversals of fortune, hissable villains and bantering backchat.

I’ve done my utmost to get it right. I feel I was handed a huge responsibility. I hope I’ve honoured it.

Thank you, James!

James’ novel Firefly – The Ghost Machine, from Titan Books UK, is out now as an e-book from all the usual sellers.

It comes out as a hardback in May (virus permitting).

Thanks to Titan UK for helping sort this interview out at a difficult time!


About

James Lovegrove is the author of over 50 acclaimed novels and books for children.

Having dabbled in writing at school, James first took to it seriously while at university. A short story of his won a college competition. The prize was £15, and it had cost £18 to get the story professionally typed. This taught him a hard but necessary lesson in the harsh economic realities of a literary career.

Straight after graduating from Oxford with a degree in English Literature, James set himself the goal of getting a novel written and sold within two years. In the event, it took two months. The Hope was completed in six weeks and accepted by Macmillan a fortnight later. The seed for the idea for the novel — a world in microcosm on an ocean liner — was planted during a cross-Channel ferry journey.

James blew his modest advance for The Hope on a round-the-world trip which took him to, among other places, Thailand. His experiences there, particularly what he witnessed of the sex industry in Bangkok, provided much of the inspiration for The Foreigners.

Escardy Gap was co-written with Pete Crowther over a period of a year and a half, the two authors playing a game of creative tag, each completing a section in turn and leaving the other to carry the story on. The result has proved a cult favourite, and was voted by readers of SFX one of the top fifty SF/Fantasy novels of all time.

Days, a satire on consumerism, was shortlisted for the 1998 Arthur C. Clarke Award (losing to Mary Doria Russell’s The Sparrow). The book’s genesis most probably lies in the many visits James used to make as a child to the Oxford Street department store owned by his grandfather. It was written over a period of nine months while James was living in the north-west suburbs of Chicago.

Subsequent works have all been published to great acclaim. These include Untied Kingdom, Worldstorm, Provender Gleed and the back-to-back double-novella Gig. Many of his early books are being reissued by Solaris Books in a series of compendium volumes entitled The James Lovegrove Collection, beginning in late 2014. United Kingdom was shortlisted for the John W. Campbell Memorial Award, while “Carry The Moon In My Pocket”, a short story, won Japan’s Seiun Award in 2011 for Best Foreign Short Story. It and other stories by James, more than 40 in total, have appeared in numerous magazines and anthologies over the years, and most have been gathered in two collections, Imagined Slights and Diversifications.

James has also written for children. Wings, a short novel for reluctant readers, was short-listed for several awards, while his fantasy series for teens, The Clouded World, written under the pseudonym Jay Amory, has been translated into 7 other languages so far. A five-book series for reluctant readers, The 5 Lords Of Pain, appeared at two-monthly intervals throughout 2010.

More recently James has produced the Pantheon series, a set of standalone military-SF adventures combining high-tech weaponry and ancient gods. The third of these, The Age Of Odin, made it onto the New York Times bestseller list, and it and all the others have been huge sales successes. He has also written the first two volumes in a trilogy of novels about a policeman who tackles vampires and vampire-related crimes — Redlaw and Redlaw: Red Eye.

He has also dipped a toe in the waters of pastiche, having produced a series of Sherlock Holmes novels for Titan Books. These include The Stuff Of Nightmares, Gods Of War, The Thinking Engine and The Labyrinth of Death, along with the Cthulhu Casebooks, a trilogy mashing up the fictional worlds of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and H.P. Lovecraft. As of 2014 he has begun a new action-adventure series set on different planets in outer space, the Dev Harmer Missions. So far there have been two of these, World Of Fire and World Of Water.

More recently, James has moved into the Firefly ‘Verse, writing tie-in fiction based on the much-missed TV series (and its follow-up movie). His first Firefly novel is Big Damn Hero (based on a story outline by Nancy Holder). His second is The Magnificent Nine.

In addition, James reviews fiction for the Financial Times, specialising in the children’s, science fiction, fantasy, horror and graphic novel genres, and was a regular and prolific contributor to Comic Heroes, a glossy magazine devoted to all things comics-related, until its regrettable demise in 2014.


About James Lovegrove

James Lovegrove is the author of over 60 acclaimed works of fiction, which have sold all over the world and been translated into 16 languages.

Straight after graduating from Oxford with a degree in English Literature, James set himself the goal of getting a novel written and sold within two years. In the event, it took two months. The Hope was completed in six weeks and accepted by Macmillan a fortnight later. The seed for the idea for the novel -- a world in microcosm on an ocean liner -- was planted during a cross-Channel ferry journey.

His next book, Escardy Gap, was co-written with Pete Crowther over a period of a year and a half, the two authors playing a game of creative tag, each completing a section in turn and leaving the other to carry the story on. The result has proved a cult favourite, and was voted by readers of SFX one of the top fifty SF/Fantasy novels of all time.

Days, a satire on consumerism, was shortlisted for the 1998 Arthur C. Clarke Award. The book's genesis most probably lies in the many visits James used to make as a child to the Oxford Street department store owned by his grandfather. It was written over a period of nine months while James was living in the north-west suburbs of Chicago.

Subsequent works have all been published to great acclaim. These include the Brexit-predicting Untied Kingdom, Worldstorm, Provender Gleed and the back-to-back double-novella Gig. United Kingdom was shortlisted for the John W. Campbell Memorial Award, while "Carry The Moon In My Pocket", a short story, won Japan's Seiun Award in 2011 for Best Foreign Short Story. It and other stories by James, more than 40 in total, have appeared in numerous magazines and anthologies over the years, and most have been gathered in two collections, Imagined Slights and Diversifications.

James has also written for children. Wings, a short novel for reluctant readers, was short-listed for several awards, while his fantasy series for teens, The Clouded World, written under the pseudonym Jay Amory, has been translated into 7 other languages so far. A five-book series for reluctant readers, The 5 Lords Of Pain, appeared at two-monthly intervals throughout 2010.

James has produced the Pantheon series, a set of standalone military-SF adventures combining high-tech weaponry and ancient gods. The third of these, The Age Of Odin, made it onto the New York Times bestseller list, and it and all the others have been a huge success, selling over a quarter of a million copies. The ninth and last volume in the series, Age of Legends, appeared in 2019.

He has also produced numerous Sherlock Holmes novels for Titan Books. These include The Stuff Of Nightmares, Gods Of War, The Thinking Engine, The Labyrinth of Death and The Devil's Dust, along with the Cthulhu Casebooks, a trilogy mashing up the fictional worlds of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and H.P. Lovecraft. His latest Holmes offerings are Sherlock Holmes and the Christmas Demon and Sherlock Holmes and the Beast of the Stapletons, a continuation of The Hound of the Baskervilles.

More recently, James has moved into the Firefly 'verse, writing tie-in fiction based on the much-missed TV series (and its follow-up movie). His first Firefly novel is Big Damn Hero (based on a story outline by Nancy Holder). His second is The Magnificent Nine, which was shortlisted for the Dragon Award for Best Media Tie-in Novel. His third, The Ghost Machine, won that award.

As a sideline, James reviews fiction for the Financial Times, specialising in the children's, science fiction, fantasy, horror and graphic novel genres, and has been a regular and prolific contributor to numerous other publications, including The Literary Review, Interzone, BBC MindGames, and Comic Heroes.


Find Ancestors

I find him next in 1914 enlisting in the Army Reserve at Reading -age 39-ag lab-unmarried.

I cannot see him on the Army Pensions or among the dead !

He is not the James Lovegrove born Hartley Witney Hampshire
he also enlisted in 1915 and was in the Royal Engineers.

Member Since:
January 2005

.have you looked for him on the 1911 census,? its free to have a search

Member Since:
February 2007

Posts:
26,562

1901 England Census
about James Lovegrove
Name: James Lovegrove
Age: 29
Estimated birth year: abt 1872
Relation: Son
Father's Name: Thomas
Mother's Name: Ann
Gender: Male
Where born: Reading, Berkshire, England

Civil parish: St Mary
Ecclesiastical parish: St Mary the Virgin
County/Island: Berkshire
Country: England

Occupation: General labourer

Condition as to marriage: Single

Employment status: View image

Registration district: Reading
Sub-registration district: St Mary
ED, institution, or vessel: 6
Neighbors: View others on page
Household schedule number: 3
Household Members: Name Age
Thomas Lovegrove 62
Ann Lovegrove 60
Frank Lovegrove 33
James Lovegrove 29
Frederick Partridge 21

Just a guess as youve not given his birth place or parents?

Researching:

Member Since:
February 2007

Posts:
26,562

British Army WWI Pension Records 1914-1920
about James Lovegrove
Name: James Lovegrove
Estimated birth year: abt 1875
Age at Enlistment: 39
Birth Parish: St Nicholas
Birth County: Berks
Document Year: 1914
Regimental Number: 9880
Number of Images: 4

Researching:

Member Since:
April 2006

Death registered @ Wokingham,1927 ,Maybe?

Member Since:
May 2004

Posts:
2,262

Do you have a place of birth for him?
All these listed in 1911:

HOUSEHOLD LOVEGROVE JAMES M 1872 39 Richmond Surrey
HOUSEHOLD LOVEGROVE JAMES M 1874 37 Hartley Wintney Hampshire
HOUSEHOLD LOVEGROVE JAMES M 1871 40 Reading Berkshire >>most likely?
HOUSEHOLD LOVEGROVE JAMES M 1871 40 Easthampstead Berkshire
HOUSEHOLD LOVEGROVE JAMES HAMMILL M 1871 40 Whitechapel London

Member Since:
April 2006

Probably abroad with the Military.

Member Since:
February 2007

Posts:
26,562

England & Wales, Death Index: 1916-2005
about James Lovegrove
Name: James Lovegrove
Death Registration Month/Year: 1951
Age at death (estimated): 78
Registration district: Newbury
Inferred County: Berkshire
Volume: 6a
Page: 52

Researching:

Member Since:
April 2006

1901 @ 4,Bray. Cottages,Berkshire.

James Lovegrove c 1876..domestic gardener born,Dyrton,Oxford ?

with wife Mary M c 1879 born Harwell,Berkshire.

Marriage 1899,Henley..Mary Minnie Saunders and James Lovegrove.

1911..there's an entry for a Mary Lovegrove 1880. OVERSEAS MILITARY.

Military record's on Ancestry tie in with the above info.

Member Since:
April 2006

James Lovegrove birth registered @ Henley Q2 3a,598.Born Pyrton,Oxford.

Parent's Charles and Emma in 1881 census.

Member Since:
November 2005

Posts:
2,399

Sorry-I fully intended to give ALL the info I have on him .

He was the illigitimate son of Martha Lovegrove-one of my grandmothers sisters and was born at Greenham Berkshire( Newbury Registration District) 2nd Q 1874-he gives his place of birth as Newbury.

I have the 1914 info-Charles was a brother of Martha who died in 1896 so I suspect he "borrowed" him as a father !

Yes Tom
I have some 1911 credits and have not managed to find him !

I also have Ancestry Premium and have searched without luck-I suppose I just hope someone will see something I am missing.

Cassidy
I thought that 1927 death may be the right one but I may have to get the certificate !


James Lovegrove Interview

There aren’t many authors who can lay claim to having pioneered or defined a sub-genre. How did you come to create Godpunk?
As with most things in my life, I wasn’t aware I was doing it until after it was done. There’ve been other books giving ancient gods a science fiction/ urban fantasy twist. Dan Simmons’s Ilium is one, Neil Gaiman’s American Gods another. Both of those, I would submit, qualify as godpunk. It was only after I’d written the first three of the Pantheon novels that the guys at Solaris and I started to wonder if we shouldn’t give the series a classification of its own. Desk editor David Moore coined the term godpunk more or less contemporaneously with Pornokitsch’s Jared Shurin, so they get joint credit. I’ve always been a bit wary of simply sticking the suffix &lsquopunk’ after something in order to make it sound edgy and cool, but it worked for cyberpunk and steampunk, so why not godpunk?

Two out of the three stories in Age of Godpunk were originally released as e-book novellas. Have you changed them at all?
There’ve been no alterations whatsoever. I wrote the first, Age Of Anansi , so that it could be released simultaneously with Age Of Aztec . Solaris commissioned it in order to dip a toe in the e-publishing waters. It seemed to work, so they commissioned two more, the second ( Age Of Satan ) to coincide with Age Of Voodoo , and the third ( Age Of Gaia ) so that there’d be a nice trio of them to be collected in a single physical-book volume, although Gaia will be coming out as a standalone e-book as well.

And are there any connections between them?
Only thematic. They’re all quite different from one another but essentially they’re about faith, belief, and the idea that religion is a collective delusion, gods merely a mythic mirror of human hopes and fears. London forms a geographical link, in that the city is a principal setting in all three of them, a place the characters visit and revisit. Anansi is about a tricksters’ convention in Nevada, Satan doffs a hat to Dennis Wheatley and the satanic horror movies of the 1970s, and Gaia is an eco-fable with a noughties twist.

In the foreword, you talk about the stories being less sci-fi and lighter in tone than your previous Age Of… books. Given that you are a regular contributor to our sister magazine Comic Heroes , are your depictions of deities influenced by comic books and superheroic gods like Thor?

The novellas are, if anything, urban fantasy. They don’t have the military-SF underpinnings of my other Pantheon stories. They presented me with a chance to spread my wings and explore other aspects of godpunk, approaching the material from a different, sideways angle. There’s not much of a comic book influence in them. For that, you’d have to look at Age Of Shiva , the novel I’m currently working on. It is a massive comic book geek fest from start to finish. The central character is a comics artist, and the book imagines the Hindu pantheon &ndash specifically the Ten Avatars of Vishnu &ndash as superheroes who have to face off against world-shaking supernatural threats. I’m channeling all my love of American comics and the superhero genre into this one, and having a whale of time with it.

With Age Of Anansi , did you want to ensure that your version of the African trickster was very different to Neil Gaiman’s portrayal of the same mythic figure in Anansi Boys?

I haven’t read Anansi Boys , and made a conscious decision not to once I started work on Age Of Anansi because I didn’t want to copy anything in that book, inadvertently or otherwise. So I can’t really comment on comparisons between the two. Age Of Anansi , anyway, is about all the trickster archetypes from various faiths and mythologies, not just the spider god of African tradition. It’s also about storytelling, since the one thing that links tricksters is their ability to spin a yarn. Sometimes they profit from their tale-telling, sometimes they get tangled up in the webs they weave. That’s the appeal of them. They’re fallible, often egotistical, sometimes ridiculous, but also terribly human and appealing.

What are you up to at the moment?

Age Of Shiva is what I’m concentrating on at present, along with doing preparatory research for my second Sherlock Holmes novel for Titan Books. It’s going to be set in the town I currently call home, Eastbourne. Where the first, The Stuff Of Nightmares , is a steampunk Holmes adventure set in Victorian London (and is published at the same time as Age Of Godpunk ), the next one’s going to be a godpunk Holmes adventure which takes place on the eve of the First World War. It’s called Gods Of War , which might be a big clue that there’s something godpunky going on. More than that, I cannot say. Mainly because I haven’t written it yet!


Worldstorm

“When the Worldstorm first stirred in the distant reaches of the earth, the people of the earth were torn asunder and thrown into disarray. For a time, all was panic and terror. But out of this panic and terror and division a new order coalesced, and the four Inclinations were known, and named.”

Or so at least one of the old stories has it. Elder Ayn doesn’t really know why the Worldstorm comes to wreak devastation on the world any more than the next man. But, being a previsionary, he does know the exact time and nature of his death. He will be murdered, and he will do nothing to prevent the killing blow. He also knows why he has left the splendid academic isolation of Stonehaven and gone out into the world, which his scribe Khollo.

The world’s order is breaking down. War is brewing between the Earth and the Fire Inclined. People who can shake the ground with a fist or pull fire out of the air with a simple thought. A storm is coming. And a girl who fears she is Extraordinary is about to learn the truth.


What do the records look like?

The medal index cards are displayed in sets of six (with the exception of the Indian Army medal cards, which download individually), usually for six different individuals with similar or even identical names.

Several different designs of medal cards were used but the most common type was the following:

Design 1

The left hand side of the card contains a printed list of the campaign medals. A note in the ‘roll’ and ‘page’ column meant the soldier was awarded that medal. You may also see ‘do’, which meant ‘ditto’.

Example of the most common type of design for a medal index card (catalogue ref: WO 372/18)

Design 2

The essential difference with this design is that the medal entitlement is at the top right hand corner and the entire lower half of the card is left free for any remarks.

Example of the less common design of medal index card (catalogue ref: WO 372/18/154847)

Design 3: the Silver War Badge

This type of card was used for individuals who received the Silver War Badge only. The card contains information about an individual and often gives the date of enlistment, date of discharge and reason for discharge.

Example of a medal index card for the Silver War badge (catalogue ref: WO 372/18/154847)

Abbreviations

Medal cards often contain abbreviations and alphanumeric codes and we have listed some common ones below. The codes for those who saw their first operational service from 1 January 1916 onwards differ slightly from those who saw operational service before 1916.

For a more detailed list of abbreviations for rank and unit, you might find it useful to refer to the PDFs below or alternatively The Collector and Researcher’s Guide to the Great War by Howard Williamson.

Abbreviations table

Up to 31 December 1915 From 1 January 1916
1 1 Western Europe
a France and Belgium
b Italy
2 2 Balkans
a Greek Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria and European Turkey
b Gallipoli (Dardanelles)
3 Russia (4-5 August 1914 to 1-2 July 1920)
3 4 Egypt
a 4-5 November 1914 to 18-19 March 1916
b 18-19 March 1916 to 31 October – 1 November 1918
4 5 Africa
a East Africa, Nyasaland and Northern Rhodesia
b South West Africa
c Cameroon
d Nigeria
e Togoland
5 6 Asia
a Hedjaz
b Mesopotamia
c Persia
d Trans Caspia
e South West Arabia
f Aden
g Frontier regions of India
h Tsingtau
6 7 Australasia
a New Britain
b New Ireland
c Kaiser Wilhelmland
d Admiralty Islands
e Nauru
f German Samoa

Other abbreviations table

Abbreviation Meaning
ARZ Class Z Army Reserve. In December 1918 soldiers being demobilised were first posted to Class Z. They could return to civilian life but knew they were obliged to return if necessary. The Z Reserve was abolished on 31 March 1920
Cl An individual had been sent a dated clasp. This clasp would go on the ribbon of the 1914 Star, or a silver rosette would go on the ribbon when only medal ribbons were being worn
Comm Commissioned
EMB or Emblems An individual had been ‘Mentioned in Despatches’ (MID) and at least two ‘oak leaf’ MID emblems had been sent to the recipient
KiA or Killed If a soldier died in action, it is often marked on the card. Sometimes it will just say ‘Dead’ but occasionally it will not be noted at all
KR 392 King’s Regulation 392 which covered causes of early discharge whether through ill health, misconduct or other reasons
Rep Replaced. This is an unusual comment implying that the index card was replaced at some point
Retd or Rtd (sometimes ‘Retd undisposed of’) Returned. If there was an error in the inscription, the medals would have to be returned to the Medals Office. Another reason for return was if the individual had moved house and the parcel was not deliverable
TE or T/E or T of E Time Expired. This is when the soldier had reached the end of his agreed period of military service. It applies only to pre-war soldiers of the regular army or Territorial Force. These men were allowed to go home but from 1916 many TE men returned to active service as conscripted soldiers.

Similar authors to follow

James Lovegrove is the author of over 60 acclaimed works of fiction, which have sold all over the world and been translated into 16 languages.

Straight after graduating from Oxford with a degree in English Literature, James set himself the goal of getting a novel written and sold within two years. In the event, it took two months. The Hope was completed in six weeks and accepted by Macmillan a fortnight later. The seed for the idea for the novel -- a world in microcosm on an ocean liner -- was planted during a cross-Channel ferry journey.

His next book, Escardy Gap, was co-written with Pete Crowther over a period of a year and a half, the two authors playing a game of creative tag, each completing a section in turn and leaving the other to carry the story on. The result has proved a cult favourite, and was voted by readers of SFX one of the top fifty SF/Fantasy novels of all time.

Days, a satire on consumerism, was shortlisted for the 1998 Arthur C. Clarke Award. The book's genesis most probably lies in the many visits James used to make as a child to the Oxford Street department store owned by his grandfather. It was written over a period of nine months while James was living in the north-west suburbs of Chicago.

Subsequent works have all been published to great acclaim. These include the Brexit-predicting Untied Kingdom, Worldstorm, Provender Gleed and the back-to-back double-novella Gig. United Kingdom was shortlisted for the John W. Campbell Memorial Award, while "Carry The Moon In My Pocket", a short story, won Japan's Seiun Award in 2011 for Best Foreign Short Story. It and other stories by James, more than 40 in total, have appeared in numerous magazines and anthologies over the years, and most have been gathered in two collections, Imagined Slights and Diversifications.

James has also written for children. Wings, a short novel for reluctant readers, was short-listed for several awards, while his fantasy series for teens, The Clouded World, written under the pseudonym Jay Amory, has been translated into 7 other languages so far. A five-book series for reluctant readers, The 5 Lords Of Pain, appeared at two-monthly intervals throughout 2010.

James has produced the Pantheon series, a set of standalone military-SF adventures combining high-tech weaponry and ancient gods. The third of these, The Age Of Odin, made it onto the New York Times bestseller list, and it and all the others have been a huge success, selling over a quarter of a million copies. The ninth and last volume in the series, Age of Legends, appeared in 2019.

He has also produced numerous Sherlock Holmes novels for Titan Books. These include The Stuff Of Nightmares, Gods Of War, The Thinking Engine, The Labyrinth of Death and The Devil's Dust, along with the Cthulhu Casebooks, a trilogy mashing up the fictional worlds of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and H.P. Lovecraft. His latest Holmes offerings are Sherlock Holmes and the Christmas Demon and Sherlock Holmes and the Beast of the Stapletons, a continuation of The Hound of the Baskervilles.

More recently, James has moved into the Firefly 'verse, writing tie-in fiction based on the much-missed TV series (and its follow-up movie). His first Firefly novel is Big Damn Hero (based on a story outline by Nancy Holder). His second is The Magnificent Nine, which was shortlisted for the Dragon Award for Best Media Tie-in Novel. His third, The Ghost Machine, won that award.

As a sideline, James reviews fiction for the Financial Times, specialising in the children's, science fiction, fantasy, horror and graphic novel genres, and has been a regular and prolific contributor to numerous other publications, including The Literary Review, Interzone, BBC MindGames, and Comic Heroes.


African theatre of World War I

East African Campaign The African Theatre of World War I comprises geographically distinct campaigns around the German colonies of Kamerun, Togoland, South-West Africa, and German East Africa.

The British Empire, with near total command of the world's oceans, had the power and resources to conquer the German colonies when the Great War started. Most German colonies in Africa had been recently acquired and were not well defended, with the notable exception of German East Africa. They were also surrounded on all land sides by African colonies belonging mostly to their enemies, the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and, later in the war, Portugal.

West Africa

Germany had two colonies in West Africa, Togoland (modern-day Togo and the Volta Region of Ghana) and Kamerun (modern-day Cameroon). The small colony of Togoland was quickly conquered by British and French military forces. The German troops in Kamerun fought fiercely against invading British, French and Belgian forces, but in 1916 (after many soldiers had escaped into Spanish Guinea, which was neutral territory) the fighting ended with the surrender of the remaining German colonial armed forces (Schutztruppe). Strategic assets in the German West African colonies included: 4 high power long wave transmitters (one in Togo, the remainder in Kamerun) port facilities containing coal refuelling depots The British Atlantic Ocean colonies of Ascension Island and Saint Helena played no part in the West Africa campaigns except in their role as shipping re-supply points.

South-West Africa

German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia) was a huge and arid territory. Bounded on the coast by the desolate Namib Desert, the only major German population was around the colonial capital of Windhoek, some 200 miles (320 km) inland from the Atlantic Ocean. The Germans had 3,000 soldiers and could count on the support of most of the 7,000 adult male German colonists. In addition, the Germans had very friendly relations with the Boers in South Africa, who had ended a bloody war with the British just twelve years before. The British began their attack by organizing and arming their former enemies, the Boers. This was dangerous, and the proposed attack on German South-West Africa turned into an active rebellion by some 12,000 Boers.

Boer leaders Jan Smuts and Louis Botha both took the British side against Christiaan Beyers and Christiaan De Wet. In two battles in October, the rebels were defeated and by the end of 1914, the rebellion was ended. General Smuts then continued his military operations into South-West Africa, starting around January 1915. The South African troops were battle-hardened and experienced in living in this type of terrain. They crossed the hundreds of miles of empty land on horseback in four columns. The Germans tried to delay this advance, but without success. Windhoek was captured on May 12, 1915. Two months later, all the German forces had surrendered. South Africa effectively ruled South-West Africa for the next 75 years.

Even before the official declaration of war between Germany and Portugal in March 1915, German and Portuguese troops clashed several times on the border between German South West Africa and Portuguese Angola. The Germans won these clashes and were able to occupy part of southern Angola, until the surrender in July 1915.

German East Africa

In German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda) the British were unable to fully subdue the defenders of the colony despite four years of effort and tens of thousands of casualties. The German commander, Colonel (later General) Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, fought a guerrilla campaign for the duration of the Great War. His achievement became the stuff of legend, although in military terms his epic campaign had only a small impact on the course of the War. German forces staged raids, hit-and-run attacks, and ambushes. The British army often laid traps for Lettow-Vorbeck's troops but failed to catch him. The German forces ranged over all of German East Africa, living off the land and capturing military supplies from the British and Portuguese military.

In 1916 the British gave the task of defeating the Germans to the Boer commander Jan Smuts along with a very large force. His conquest of German East Africa was methodical and moderately successful. By the autumn of 1916, British troops had captured the German railway line and were solidly in control of the land north of the railway, while Belgian𠄼ongolese troops under the command of General Tombeur had captured the Eastern part of the colony, including Ruanda-Urundi and Tabora. However, Lettow-Vorbeck's army was not defeated and remained active long after Smuts had left to join the Imperial War Cabinet in London in 1917. The German forces moved into Portuguese East Africa in November 1917, and later back into German East Africa, finally ending up in Northern Rhodesia when the war ended. Lettow-Vorbeck's small army agreed to a cease-fire at the Chambeshi River on November 14, 1918, after receiving a telegram informing them that Germany had given up fighting on November 11 (see Von Lettow-Vorbeck Memorial). The formal surrender took place on November 23, 1918 at Abercorn. Lettow-Vorbeck's army was never defeated in battle, and he was welcomed in Germany as a hero.

Reference South African Theatre of World War 1 Information shared under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License - see Creative Commons Licenses


Watch the video: WORLD WAR 1 - Part 1- by William Philpott - War of Attrition - - WAR SERIES (July 2022).


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