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Second Macedonian War, 200-196 BC

Second Macedonian War, 200-196 BC



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Second Macedonian War, 200-196 BC

Causes
Roman Intervention
The War
Peace Terms

Causes

The Second Macedonian War, 200-196 B.C., was the first war in which the Roman Republic made a major military effort in Greece, and it marked an end to the power of Macedonia. Rome and Macedonia had fought before, in 215-205 B.C. (First Macedonian War), but to the Romans this had been a sideshow when compared to the threat posed by Hannibal (Second Punic War). Some troops and a fleet had been sent east, but the Roman effort was limited, and the war was ended in 205 by the Peace of Phoenice.

This treaty had concentrated on the fate of Rome’s allies in Illyria, and had been somewhat favourable to Philip, who was allowed to keep some of his conquests in the area. As a result Philip appears to have underestimated the level of Roman interest in Greece and the Aegean. At this date the Romans didn’t want to expand into the area themselves, but they also didn’t want any other major power to emerge. In contrast Philip V wanted to expand Macedonia power around the Aegean and in Asia Minor.

The five years between the two Macedonian Wars were by no means peaceful. In 205 B.C. the only significant naval power in the Aegean was Rhodes, and she was greatly concerned by a rise in the amount of piracy in the area. A war (the Cretan War) soon broke out between Rhodes and a group of Cretan cities led by Hierapytna. Philip sent 20 ships under the Aetolian admiral Dicaearchus to aid the Cretans, while in 204 or 203 one of his close associates burnt some of the Rhodian dockyards.

A third major power was active around the Aegean in 204-203 B.C. This was Antiochus III, the Seleucid emperor, who after a long campaign in the eastern part of his empire (his “Anabasis” of 215-205), returned to the west to recover his family’s possessions in western Asia Minor. During this period he captured Amyzon, previously help by Egypt, Alabanda and Teos. This campaign was ended in 203 by a sudden crisis in Egypt. Ptolemy Philopator died at some point in 204 to 203, but his death was kept secret until November 203. He was succeeded by his infant son, and power fell into the hands of a series of inept ministers. This was too good a chance for Antiochus to ignore. Over the next few years he was able to reconquer Coele Syria, Phoenicia and Palestine, and he would not return to Asia Minor until 197.

The absence of Antiochus left a power vacuum in Asia Minor, while Philip was all too ready to attempt to fill. He was also encouraged by the completion a new Macedonian fleet. Work on this had begun during the First Macedonian War, but had been suspended because of a shortage of money. Now the fleet was finally ready, and with it Philip began a campaign of conquest around the Aegean and Asia Minor, concentrating especially on the Hellespont.

Philip was careful not to attack towns under the control of the major powers, but he was perfectly willing to attack allies of the Aetolian League. He captured Chalcedon on the Bosporus for himself and Cius on the Propontis for Prusias of Bithynia. Before handing the town over the Prusias, Philip sold the population into slavery. He did the same with the people of Thasos, off the coast of Thrace. In the same period Philip also took Samos, a key Ptolemaic base in the Aegean, Lysimacheia and the islands of Andros, Paros and Cythnos.

These actions angered the Greek world. The fate of Cius and Thasos, both important trading centres and peaceful free cities was of particular concern, especially to Rhodes, a key naval and trading power. From 202 they saw themselves as being at war with Philip, but they took no military action until 201 B.C, by which time they had managed to convince Attalus of Pergamum to join them.

201 B.C. saw two naval battles, at Chios and Lade, and a short siege of Pergamum. The battle of Chios probably came first. In this battle Philip faced both the fleets of Rhodes and Pergamum. In what were almost two separate battles Philip suffered heavy losses against the fleet from Rhodes, but defeated Attalus, who then returned to Pergamum to defend his kingdom. The second naval battle was between Philip and Rhodes, and was a minor victory for Philip. It is unclear where the attack of Pergamum fits into this, but it may have come between the two naval battles.

After the naval battles Philip moved south, to Caria, the part of Asia Minor north of Rhodes, where he captured a series of towns, including Iasus and Bargylia, in the gulf of Bargylia. This move almost led to disaster, for the combined fleets of Rhodes and Pergamum now blockaded Philip in the gulf, and he spent a difficult winter trapped on the coast of Asia Minor, always short of food, before finally breaking out early in 200.

While Philip was at Bargylia Athens was drawn into the war against him. In late September 201, during the Eleusinian Mysteries at the temple of Demeter, two uninitiated Acarnanians followed the crowd of initiates into the temple. When they were discovered they were executed for the sacrilege. The Acarnanians appealed to their ally Philip, who authorised a raid into Attica. The Athenians responded by abolishing the tribes of Antigonis and Demetrias, which had been created to honour two of Philip’s ancestors, then arranged alliances with Attalus, Rhodes, the Aetolian League, Egypt and Crete. They also sent envoys to Rome, although exactly when they reached the city is unclear.

More important were the envoys sent by Rhodes and Attalus. Attalus was a friend of Rome, and their call for help had a good chance of being answered.

Roman Intervention

The envoys from Rhodes and Pergamum reached Rome late in 201, just before the consular elections for 200. The Romans had three main motives for getting involved in the east. First, Philip V had never been forgiven for declaring war on them in 215 B.C., when the Republic was still reeling from the defeat at Cannae. Second, the Romans didn’t want a strong power to emerge to their east just after they had dealt with Cartage, removing the strong power to their south and west. Thirdly, there existed a group of “eastern experts”, who had fought in Greece during the First Macedonian War without winning glory. One of the accepted routes to political power and glory in Republic Rome was through military success, and these men wanted their chance to win triumphs. A possible fourth motive was a fear of Antiochus, who had successfully convinced the world that his expedition to the east had been far more successful that it really was.

The elections for 200 were won by P. Sulpicius Galba, the Roman commander in Greece for much of the first war, and C. Aurelius, a relative of M. Aurelius, the commander of a small Roman army then present in Illyria. Even before the election the senate had taken a step towards war. Three legati were about to be sent east, to Egypt, to announce the defeat of Carthage. They were now given an addition task. Philip was to be told that if he wanted to live in peace with Rome then he had to agree not to wage war against any Greek state, and to pay compensation to Attalus.

By the time the legati finally reached Philip extra terms had been added to this, but in any case it can never have been seen as a serious attempt to make peace, for after his election Galba was given Macedonia as his province, or area of military authority.

The next step was to present the declaration of war to the comitia centuriata (the assemblies in which the Roman people could vote on these major issues). At first the war-weary people, led by the tribune Q. Baebius, voted against the war,but after Galba agreed not to include any veterans from the African war in his army, in July 200 the measure was passed.

Only now did the legati finally reach Greece, visiting Epirus, Athamania, Aetolia and Achaea, before arriving at Athens in the company of Attalus of Pergamum. While they were at Athens a second Macedonia army, led by the Macedonian general Nicanor, reached the walls of the city. The Romans met with Nicanor, who returned to Philip with their terms.

Philip reacted to the Roman threat by sending a third raid into Attica, while he led a campaign into Thrace, with the intention of securing control of the Hellespont. The youngest of the legati, M. Aemilus Lepidus, finally caught up with Philip during the siege of Abydos, on the Asian short of the Hellespont. The meeting soon degenerated into an argument about who had started the war, with both sides having some truth on their side. Philip then declared that he was not afraid of the Romans, and the meeting ended.

Philip’s attitude towards the Romans has been the subject of a great deal of debate. He had seen very little during the First Macedonian War to worry him, and perhaps had not realised how much more of an effort Rome would be able to make now the war with Carthage was over. It is also possible that he was well aware that the Romans had no interest in peace at this stage, and was simply making every effort to secure his position before they arrived.

The War

The Romans entered the war with two main aims. Their most important aim was to inflict a military defeat on Philip that would end his ambitions of conquest, and force him to obey Roman instructions. Their second aim was to convince the Greeks that they came as the defenders of Greek liberty, for at this stage the Romans had no interest in making conquests east of the Adriatic.

The first Roman army, two legions under the command of Galba, reached Apollonia late in the summer of 200. Galba then entered winter quarters, but at the same time he sent twenty triremes under the command his legate C. Claudius Centho around the coast to Athens, where they attacked Philip’s major fortress at Chalcis, before helping to lift a virtual siege of Athens.

199

At this point the Athenians were Rome’s only Greek allies, although they did have the support of Amynander, king of Athamania, and of the Dardanians. Galba planed a combined offensive for 199, which would see Macedonia invaded from the north and south by the Dardanians and Amynander, from the west by Galba and from the east by the combined fleets of Rome, Pergamum and Rhodes. The fleets did have some success during the year, capturing Andros, Oreus, Larisa Cremaste and Pteleum.

Galba’s part of the plan was carried out, but without much success. After wining a minor victory at Ottolobus, the Romans were denied the chance for a second battle. Toward the end of the campaign Galba came close to entering lower Macedonia, but too late in the year, and he was forced to retire back to the coast. There he was replaced by his successor, P. Villius Tappulus, who also arrived too late to do anything but go into winter quarters.

Even these minor Roman successes were enough to convince the Aetolian League to renew their alliance with Rome. They had been allies during the First Macedonian War, and under the terms of that alliance the Aetolian League was to gain any cities conquered in Greece. However the League had then broken the terms of their treaty with Rome by making a separate peace with Philip. The Romans remembered this, and were careful never to renew the agreement in writing. At the end of the war the Aetolians were to be disappointed in their claims for territory.

198

At the start of 198 Philip was aware that he could not afford to let the Romans invade Macedonia for a second time without offering more serious resistance. Accordingly he took up a strong defensive position in a gorge on the Aous River, blocking the best invasion route into Macedonia from the west. Learning of this P. Villius Tappulus decided to attack, but when he was only five miles from Philip’s position his replacement, the new consul T. Quinctius Flamininus, caught up with the army and took command.

Flamininus was a good choice of leader for the war in Greece. He was fluent in Greek, greatly admired Greek culture, and was unusually tactful for a Roman consul. He would have been very happy to have been lauded as the liberator of Greece, as long as the liberated Greeks were willing to become a Roman protectorate.

Philip and Flamininus met on the banks of the Aous River. Now far more aware of Roman power Philip offered to accept the terms offered at Abydos, but there were no longer acceptable to the Romans, who now demanded that Philip give up all of his Hellenic lands, including Thessaly, which had been under Macedonian rule for a century and a half, and whose inhabitants would soon be actively resisting the Romans. Philip rejected these terms, and returned to his army.

The Romans now won their first major military victory of the war. With the help of a local guide they were able to turn Philip out of his apparently impregnable position in the Aous gorge. Philip lost 2,000 men and all of his baggage, and was forced to retreat into Thessaly. Once there he garrisoned the major towns, destroyed the crops, and then took up a position at Tempe.

Flamininus soon followed, invading northern Thessaly. At the same time the Aetolians attacked from the south and Amynander attacked from the west. The Thessalians showed little desire to be “liberated”. Phaloria fell after a long siege, but Atrax held out for so long that Flamininus was forced to abandon the siege. He then moved south, to take up winter quarters on the Gulf of Corinth. There he captured Elateia after another siege. Normally the inhabitants of a captured town were likely to be sold into slavery, but the Romans claimed to come as liberators, and so the people of Elateia remained free.

The Roman successes of 198 encouraged the Achaean League to abandon their long alliance with Philip, and join with the Romans. This diplomatic coup had limited military results. Philip’s garrison in Acrocorinth held out against a Roman attack, while Argos left the Achaean League, and let in Philip’s troops.

Despite this success Philip’s position was now desperate, and in November a peace conference was held at his request. The conference, at Nicaea, came quite close to success. Flamininus was coming to the end of his period as consul. It was possible that he would be allowed to remain in Greece, but if he was to be replaced then it was in his interests to arrange a good peace while he would still get the glory.

The Romans demanded that Philip hand over all of his Illyrian lands to Rome, evacuate Greece, and restore any towns taken of Ptolemy. Attalus wanted paying, Rhodes wanted Philip to abandon all of his conquests in Asia and on the Hellespont, the Achaeans wanted Corinth and Argos, the Aetolians wanted all the cities captured from them by Philip. Philip was ready to meet many of these demands, but not to abandon his three main Greek fortresses at Demetrias, Chalcis and Acrocorinth (known as the “fetters of Greece”).

Philip then suggested that the remaining areas of disagreement should be decided by the Roman senate. If Flamininus had not been made proconsul, then it seems likely that these negotiations would have ended in success, but the senate decided to keep the consuls for 197 in Italy, leaving Flamininus in command in Greece. At this point Philip’s envoys were asked if he would give up the fetters, and they were unable to answer. The negotiations failed, and the war continued into 197.

197

The decisive battle of the war came in Thessaly. Despite the disasters he had suffered in 198, Philip still had his army intact. By the early summer of 197 he had 23,500 infantry (18,000 from Macedonia) and 2,000 cavalry. The Macedonian phalanx was not as dominant a weapon as it had been under Alexander, but it was still greatly feared. Flaminius had around 26,000 men – two legions and 8,400 allies, with 2,400 cavalry.

The two armies first made contact at Pherae, before turning west to find a better battlefield. The big weakness of the phalanx was that it needed level clear ground to be effective. If it was disrupted in any way then the phalanx could be very vulnerable. This was exactly what happened during the battle of Cynoscephalae. The battle was fought on unsuitable rough ground, and before part of Philip’s army was position. The legions broke into the phalanx, and a massacre followed. Philip may have lost as many as 13,000 men.

Peace Terms

In the aftermath of Cynoscephalae Philip sued for peace, and accepted the terms offered at Nicaea. He abandoned all of his territories in Greece, including the “fetters”. His son Demetrius was taken as one of the hostages for the peace. The newly freed Greek cities were to live under their own laws, with their security guaranteed by Rome. Flamininus hoped to create a stable happy Greece that would act as a barrier against Antiochus.

Not everyone was happy with the peace. The Aetolians were unpleasantly surprised to discover that they would not receive their lost towns, as the Romans did not consider the treaty of 212 to still be in force. Only Phthiotic Thebes was given back to the league. The newly elected consul M. Claudius Marcellus was also unhappy with the peace, in his case because he had wanted the command for 196, but despite this the Senate approved the peace treaty.

The peace would be short lived. Just as the Romans had feared at the start of the First Macedonian War, each involvement in Greek affairs tended to lead into the next. Although Philip was no longer a threat, Antiochus still was, and his activities in Asia Minor worried the Senate. Within a few years Rome and Antiochus would be at war.


The Second Macedonian War

Since the treaty between Rome and Macedonia in 205 BC, the two nations maintained an uneasy and hostile peace. Rome was still occupied with Carthage, ending the war with the victory over Hannibal at Zama in 202 BC, and the continued hostile actions of Philip V of Macedon had to be temporarily overlooked. During the interim period between the First and Second Macedonian Wars, Philip took full advantage of Rome's apparent indifference.

By 203 BC Philip, having won some lands in Illyria during the first war, pressed his advantage in the region by gaining more territory in the Roman protectorate. Roman objections eventually changed Philip's tact, but only moved him closer towards new conflict with Rome. He stretched his influence into the Greek cities to his south rather than Illyria in the north, which were formerly considered under the protection of Rome. In 202 BC, Philip and Antiochus III of Syria entered into a secret deal to expand their own territories. The goal was to divide up the possessions of the Egyptian monarchy, which was embroiled in civil strife and under the rule of the child king, Ptolemy V. Antiochus moved against southern Syria and other parts of the current Middle East, while Philip turned away from Roman aggression to his west. His target was Thracia and control of the important shipping lanes from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean.

By 201 BC, Philip was fully at war with the powerful fleet of the island nation Rhodes, and with Attalus King of Pergamum in Asia Minor. Losses in battle to these nations inspired the Greeks who had fallen under Macedonia's control to rise up and appeal to Rome for help. A diplomatic mission from Pergamum, Rhodes and Athens, arrived in Rome in the same year all with the same goal of securing Roman intervention. While initially rejected by the Senate, it soon became clear that Philip had to be dealt with, either in Macedonian territory at that point, or later after potentially building enough strength to invade Italy. Ambassadors were sent to Philip demanding his withdrawal from the territories of Rome's allies, which were flatly rejected.

By 200 BC, Philip sent one army to invade Attica, a territory belonging to Athens while he commanded a force against coastal towns in Thracia. Further rejection of Roman demands to cease and desist, prompted the declaration of War. Rome's stated reasons were to secure the independence of the Greek cities, but certainly also with the subversive goal to expand Roman influence in the east. In the same year, the Roman Consul Galba took command of 2 legions, and the war was on.

Late in 200 BC, Galba raided Macedonian border towns and moved to Illyria to undue some of Philip's gains there. A fleet was sent around the Greek coast to help them fend of Macedonian sieges, and the Aetolians were convinced to once again join the Romans against Philip. Otherwise, the early campaign was rather uneventful with neither side gaining much of an advantage. Galba and his successor, P. Villius Tappula, essentially spent 2 years in a virtual stalemate.

T. Quictius Flaminius ascended to command the Romans in 198 BC, and immediately set about taking the war to Philip. In negotiating with the Macedonian King, Flaminius championed the freedom of the Greek cities and demanded Macedonian withdrawal from all of Greece. Obviously refused, Flaminius did win the desired outcome, the entry of the Greek Achaean League into the war as allies of Rome. Flaminius then engaged Philip at the river Aous, and won a minor engagement which opened up an invasion route to Thessaly. With the avenue now open, the Romans moved into Macedonian territory and laid siege to several towns until winter forced him to retire at Phocis until the spring.

Again the two parties met for negotiations late in the year 198. Flaminius used political savvy to set himself up for either future campaigning, or to end the war. Had he lost his Consular powers at the end of the year, terms could've been negotiated to end the war, but if he won re-election, he wished to continue the fight. Delaying Philip in the discussions, he had the Macedonians send an envoy to Rome to discuss exact terms of peace. While the envoy was en route, Flaminius learned that he would in fact be keeping his Consular powers for the next season and 'arranged' for the peace negotiations to fail in the Senate due to lack of popular support. Newly inspired by his chance to win the war on the battlefield, rather than in the Senate, Flaminius set about planning for the next campaign.

Opening the spring campaign Flamininus led his two veteran legions along with a strong compliment (8,000) of mostly Aetolian Greeks into Thessaly. Philip responded to the conquest of several of his regional towns by confronting the Romans with about 25,000 men. At Cynoscephalae the two armies met in 197 BC. In the first large scale meeting between the Roman legion and the classical Macedonian phalanx, the legionary flexibility proved superior. Hemmed in by their own rigid tactics, the Macedonians were overwhelmed as Flaminius countered Philip's tactics with various strategic maneuvers. With a crushing defeat, Philip had no choice but to settle on unfavorable terms.

By 196 BC, terms of the treaty were negotiated and Philip had to give up all claims on Greek territory, sending the city-states into the protectorate of Rome. He had to pay 1,000 talents in gold as tribute. He was however left in command of Macedonia. The Romans viewed Antiochus III in Syria (and now expanding in Asia Minor) as a considerable threat, and they viewed Philip as a capable leader able to provide a buffer. Terms of the treaty also included that all Greek cities in Asia Minor were now under the protection of Rome, clearly aimed at thwarting Syrian expansion into that territory.

Rome, so soon after the end of the Second Punic War and with limited available manpower, wasn't able to continue to garrison the Greek cities but the politically astute Flaminius used this fact of military necessity to Rome's advantage. At the Isthmian games in Greece in the summer of 196 BC, Flaminius announced the 'treaty of freedom'. Greece would be un-garrisoned by either Rome or Macedonia and they would be free to live their lives under their own laws and customs. Winning great admiration from the Greeks that would last for centuries, Flaminius also accomplished another important goal. Unable to garrison the Greeks themselves, Greek admiration and gratitude to Rome for its part in defeating Macedon would secure their friendship and loyalty. Avoiding the quagmire of Greek politics, Rome expanded its influence in the east without the need for permanent legionary garrisons. By 196 BC, the Romans had removed all of their forces from Greece, while essentially gaining an obedient client kingdom and all the corresponding tribute that went along with it.


First Macedonian War (214 to 205 BC)

During the Second Punic War, Philip V of Macedon allied himself with Hannibal. Fearing possible reinforcement of Hannibal by Macedon, the senate dispatched a praetor with forces across the Adriatic. Roman maniples (aided by allies from the Aetolian League and Pergamon after 211 BC) did little more than skirmish with Macedonian forces and seize minor territory along the Adriatic coastline in order to “combat piracy”. Rome’s interest was not in conquest, but in keeping Macedon busy while Rome was fighting Hannibal. The war ended indecisively in 205 BC with the Treaty of Phoenice. While a minor conflict, it opened the way for Roman military intervention in Macedon. This conflict, though fought between Rome and Macedon, was largely independent of the Roman-Macedon wars that followed (which began with the Second Macedonian War and were largely dependent on each other) in the next century.


War Council

Macedonian Army (Use Greek blocks)
• Leader: Phillip V
• 5 Command Cards

Roman Army (Use Roman blocks)
• Leader: Consul Lucius Quinctius Flamininus
• 5 Command Cards
• Move First

Special Rules
Optional – Roman Tactical Flexibility. An unsupported Greek heavy infantry unit may only battle back against a Roman medium or heavy infantry unit with 3 battle dice (which reflects the ability of the more maneuverable legions to gain the flanks of the phalanx and strike decisively).


Aftermath. The Partition of Macedon

Aemilius sent his son, Quintus Fabius Maximus, who had returned from Rome, to sack two cites: Agassae, which revolted after it had surrendered to the consul and asked for an alliance with Rome, and Aeginium, which refused to believe the Roman victory and killed some Roman soldiers who entered the town. Lucius Postumius was sent to sack Aeniae "because of its obstinacy".

Commissioners were sent to Macedon and to Illyria. Livy wrote that the senate resolved that the Macedonians and Illyrians should be free "so that it might be clear to all the world that the arms of Rome did not carry slavery to the free, but on the contrary freedom to the enslaved and also that amongst those nations which enjoyed liberty, the security and permanence of their liberty rested under the protection of Rome." This had to do with the self-image the Romans liked to have and with propaganda, rather than reality. The contracts for working the rich mines of Macedon and the leases of the royal domains were scrapped and were put under Roman tax collectors. The pretext was that without them “the law lost its authority or the subjects their liberty” and that the Macedonians were unable to work the mines themselves because those in charge would line their pockets and this could cause unrest. Ironically, the Roman tax collectors became notorious for lining their pockets. The Macedonian national council was abolished with the excuse that this was intended to prevent a demagogue from flattering the “mob” and turn the freedom granted by the Romans into a “dangerous and fatal licence.” Macedon was to be divided into four republics, each with its own council which would have to pay Rome a tribute which was half of what used to be paid to the king. The same regulations applied to Illyria. More definite arrangements were to be made by the commissioners.

When the commission arrived from Rome Aemilius gave notice for the representatives of all the cites to assemble at Amphipolis and bring all the documents they had and all the money due to the Royal treasury. A conference was held and there was such a display of pomp and power that Livy wrote that it “might have even appalled the allies of Rome.” It was declared that the Macedonians were to be free and retain their fields and cites and elect their officials. Then the partition, the borders of the four cantons and the tribute were announced. Aemilius designated the four capitals. Intermarriage between people of different cantons and the possession of houses or land in more than one canton were banned. The gold and silver mines were not allowed to be mined, but the iron and copper ones were. Imported salt and cutting wood for domestic shipbuilding or allowing other to do so were forbidden. The cantons with borders with other nations were allowed to have border troops.

The Romans also used their victory to increase their control over the whole of Greece by supporting the pro-Roman factions around Greece. Their supporters had come to the conference from all over Greece. They made allegations that many of those who had supported Perseus in their cities and states had fostered hostility towards Rome, claimed that maintaining loyalty to Rome in their states required crushing them and gave lists of names. The commissioners decided that the people in the list had to go to Rome to make their defence. Livy wrote that the pro-Romans were inflated “to an insupportable pitch of insolence.” In Macedon everyone who had been in the king’s service was sent to Italy with their children over fifteen.

Aemilius sent Nasica and his son, Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, to ravage the areas of Illyria which had helped Perseus.

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Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC)

The Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) was a war fought between the Roman Republic and King Perseus of Macedon. In 179 BC King Philip V of Macedon died and was succeeded by his ambitious son Perseus. He was anti-Roman and stirred anti-Roman feelings around Macedonia. View Historic Battle »

Background: The Romans felt that it was clear that he was making preparations for war and that it would not be long before he would take up arms.

Preparations for war and diplomatic missions: Two legions were assigned for Macedon and the number of men for each was be 6,000 instead of the usual 5,200. The troops of Italian allies were 16,000 infantry and 800 cavalry.

First year of the war (171 BC): Meanwhile, Publius Licinius had marched from Epirus on the west coast of Greece through arduous mountain passes and through Athamania, a kingdom allied with Perseus.

Second year of the war (170 BC): The people of Coronea put themselves under the protection of the Roman senate, which decreed the restoring to freedom of the captives.

Third year of the war (169 BC): The Macedonian War was assigned to Quintus Marcius and the command of the fleet to the praetor Quintus Marcius Figulus. The troops allocated for Greece were 6,000 Roman infantry, 6,000 Latin infantry, 250 Roman cavalry and 300 allied cavalry there.

Fourth year of the war (168 BC): They reported that the Romans had advanced towards Macedon, but the travel on the pathless mountains had resulted in more peril than profit. Perseus was still holding his country and the two forces were very close to each other.

Aftermath: The Romans also used their victory to increase their control over the whole of Greece by supporting the pro-Roman factions around Greece. Their supporters had come to the conference from all over Greece.

The enslavement of 150,000 Epirots: After the defeat of the Illyrian king, Lucius Anicius, the commander in Illyria, paced garrisons in the Illyrian cities. Then he marched on Epirus with the rest of his army to suppress the rebellion there.

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First Macedonian War (214–205 BC)

Was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage. View First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) »

Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC)

Fought between Macedon, led by Philip V of Macedon, and Rome, allied with Pergamon and Rhodes. The result was the defeat of Philip who was forced to abandon all his possessions in southern Greece, Thrace and Asia Minor. View Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC) »

Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC)

In 179 BC King Philip V of Macedon died and was succeeded by his ambitious son Perseus. He was anti-Roman and stirred anti-Roman feelings around Macedonia. He was suspected of preparing for war against Rome by the Romans and their most important ally in the east, Eumenes II of Pergamon. View Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) »

Fourth Macedonian War (150-148 BC)

The Fourth Macedonian War (150 BC to 148 BC) was fought between the Roman Republic and a Greek uprising led by the Macedonian pretender to the throne Andriscus. Pretending to be the son of former king Perseus, who had been deposed by the Romans after the Third Macedonian War in 168 BC, Andriscus sought to re-establish the old Macedonian Kingdom. View Fourth Macedonian War (150-148 BC) »


Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC)

The Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) was a war fought between the Roman Republic and King Perseus of Macedon. In 179 BC King Philip V of Macedon died and was succeeded by his ambitious son Perseus. He was anti-Roman and stirred anti-Roman feelings around Macedonia.


Ancient Greek marble relief c. 330 BC depicting a soldier in combat, holding his weapon above his head as he prepares to strike a fallen enemy the relief may have been part of an official Athenian state memorial from the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek collection.



Related Articles

First Macedonian War (214–205 BC)

Was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage. View Historic Battles »

Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC)

Fought between Macedon, led by Philip V of Macedon, and Rome, allied with Pergamon and Rhodes. The result was the defeat of Philip who was forced to abandon all his possessions in southern Greece, Thrace and Asia Minor. View Historic Battles »

Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC)

In 179 BC King Philip V of Macedon died and was succeeded by his ambitious son Perseus. He was anti-Roman and stirred anti-Roman feelings around Macedonia. View Historic Battles »

Fourth Macedonian War (150-148 BC)

Fought between the Roman Republic and a Greek uprising led by the Macedonian pretender to the throne Andriscus. Andriscus sought to re-establish the old Macedonian Kingdom. View Historic Battles »


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Fourth Macedonian War (150 to 148 BC) [ edit | edit source ]


For several years, Greece was peaceful until a popular uprising in Macedon rose up under Andriscus, who claimed to be a son of Perseus. Rome once again dispatched its legions into Greece, and thoroughly put down the Macedonian rebellion. This time, Rome did not withdraw from the region, forming the Roman province of Macedonia, establishing a permanent Roman foothold on the Greek peninsula.

In response, the remaining free Greek cities of the Achaean League, rose up against Roman presence in Greece. This is sometimes referred to as the Achaean War, 146 BC, noted for its short duration and its timing right after the fall of Macedonia. Resentment at Roman high-handedness caused the cities of the Achaean League to declare war on Rome. Until this time, Rome had only campaigned in Greece in order to fight Macedonian forts, allies or clients. Rome's military supremacy was well established, having defeated Macedonia and its vaunted Phalanx already on 3 occasions, and defeating superior numbers against the Seleucids in Asia. The Achaean leaders almost certainly knew that this declaration of war against Rome was hopeless, as Rome had triumphed against far stronger and larger opponents, the Roman legion having proved its supremacy over the Macedonian phalanx. Polybius blames the demagogues of the cities of the league for inspiring the population into a suicidal war. Nationalist stirrings and the idea of triumphing against superior odds motivated the league into this rash decision. The Achaea League was swiftly defeated, and, as an object lesson, Rome utterly destroyed the city of Corinth in 146 BC, the same year that Carthage was destroyed. The Macedonian Wars had come to an end, along with Greek independence. Greece became the Roman provinces of Achaea and Epirus. The early years of conquest were marked by enslavement and looting. Rome, while still a republic, now possessed an empire throughout the western and central Mediterranean that was larger than the Roman homelands in Italy.


Rome takes an interest

Rome had just emerged victorious from the Second Punic War against Carthage. Up to this point Rome had taken very little interest in the affairs of the eastern Mediterranean. The First Macedonian War against Philip V had been over the issue of Illyria and was resolved by the Peace of Phoenice in 205 BC. Very little in Philip's recent actions in Thrace and Asia Minor could be said to concern the Roman Republic directly. Nevertheless, the Romans listened to the appeal from Rhodes and Pergamon and sent a party of three ambassadors to investigate matters in Greece. The ambassadors found very little enthusiasm for a war against Philip until they reached Athens. Here they met King Attalus I of Pergamon and diplomats from Rhodes. At the same time, Athens declared war on Macedon and Philip sent a force to invade Attica. The Roman ambassadors held a meeting with the Macedonian general and urged Macedon to leave the Greek cities in peace, singling out Athens, Rhodes, Pergamon, and the Aetolian League as now Roman allies and thus free from Macedonian influence and to come to an arrangement with Rhodes and Pergamon to adjudicate damages from the latest war. The Macedonian general evacuated Athenian territory and handed the Roman ultimatum to his master Philip.

Philip, who had managed to slip past the blockade and arrive back home, rejected the Roman ultimatum out of hand. He renewed his attack on Athens and began another campaign in the Dardanelles, besieging the important city of Abydus. Here, in the autumn of 200 BC, a Roman ambassador reached him with a second ultimatum, urging him not to attack any Greek state or to seize any territory belonging to Ptolemy and to go to arbitration with Rhodes and Pergamon. It was obvious that Rome was now intent on making war on Philip and at the very same time the ambassador was delivering the second ultimatum, a Roman force was disembarking in Illyria. Philip's protests that he was not in violation of any of the terms of the Peace of Phoenice he had signed with Rome were in vain.

Polybius reports that during the siege of Abydus, Philip had grown impatient and sent a message to the besieged that the walls would be stormed and that if anybody wished to commit suicide or surrender they had 3 days to do so. The citizens promptly killed all the women and children of the city, threw their valuables into the sea and fought to the last man. This story illustrates the reputation for atrocities that Philip had earned by this time during his efforts at expanding Macedonian power and influence through the conquest of other Greek cities. [1]


Macedonian War, Second

The Republic of Rome might not have been fully aware of the fact that it was slowly becoming a powerful force in the world. Rome had been expanding all over the known world and even into the outer fringes of distant lands. Their power was growing immensely, and they had the tendency to involve themselves in foreign affairs. King Philip V of Macedonia knew about the Romans from his confrontation with them in Illyria, which took place during the 1st Macedonian War. The second Macedonian war takes place at the very end of the second century BC that is where it appears on the Biblical Timeline with World History. It ended in 196 BC.

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1st Macedonian Conflict with Rome

Rome got involved in Greek and Macedonian affairs during the 1st Macedonian War, and it set the stage for their invasion of Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and the Middle East. In the 1st Macedonian War, King Philip V of Macedonia aligned himself with Hannibal in 215-205 B.C. against Rome, who was encroaching on the region.

King Philip V sided with another Greek kingdom known as the Illyrians against the Romans in two wars that occurred between 230 and 219 B.C. These conflicts were known as the Illyrian wars. King Demetrius, the leader of Illyria, had fled to King Philip’s court after his defeat to the Romans in 219 and became an adviser against the Romans. Rome had decided to push into Greece for some reasons and some them was to keep Illyrians under control and to keep King Philip V power in check. They knew about Alexander‘s conquest and how the Greeks were able to dominate the world through them and did not want King Philip V making Macedonia repeat his success.

King Philip V got tired of Rome measuring in his affairs. During the 1st Macedonian War, Philip and Hannibal became allies. The Romans did not like this situation because Hannibal had been such a problem for them for many years. Even though this was the case, Rome ultimately decided to make a peace treaty with Macedonia. The Treaty of Phoenice was signed in 205 B.C., and five years later the 2nd Macedonian War had begun.

Second Macedonian War with Rome

The conflict started when the Egyptian Pharaoh Ptolemy Philopator had died around 204 B.C. When he passed away his son Ptolemy was just a young six-year-old boy when he became the king. The child did not have the ability to rule his empire, and it was controlled by incompetent or incapable ministers who could not effectively govern Egypt. As a result, King Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire decided to take some of Egypt’s possessions in the Middle East. And the Mediterranean and King Philip wanted to gain some territories in Greece and Asia Minor that were allied with or under the control of Egypt.

King Philip V’s actions caused so much turmoil in the Greek world that Rome was called in to aid various Greek and Asia Minor city states against him. Rome feared King Philip V gaining power and they also feared Antiochius III becoming too strong. So they decided to go to war and with Philip once again. Also, they had not forgotten the past feelings that resulted from the first Macedonian conflict. Rome wanted the captured Greek states to see them as liberators and to defeat Macedonia once and for all.


The Peace of Flamininus

An armistice was declared and peace negotiations were held in the Vale of Tempe. Philip agreed to evacuate the whole of Greece and relinquish his conquests in Thrace and Asia Minor. Flamininus' allies in the Aetolian League also made further territorial claims of their own against Philip but Flamininus refused to back them. The treaty was sent to Rome for ratification. The Senate added terms of its own: Philip must pay a war indemnity and surrender his navy (although his army was untouched). In 196, peace was finally agreed and at the Isthmian Games that year Flamininus proclaimed the liberty of the Greeks to general rejoicing of those who were attending the Games. Nevertheless, the Romans kept garrisons in key strategic cities which had belonged to Macedon – Corinth, Chalcis and Demetrias – and the legions were not completely evacuated until 194.